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Unvertured head cuttings
Some perennials, especially evergreen species such as knapweed or beard, but also perennial leaf plants such as garden rue and dog chamomile, are propagated with head cuttings.
Take about 7.5-10 cm long cuttings with at least three leaf nodes from the tips of thick, leafy sprouts in late summer or early fall. Cut them straight underneath the bottom leaf node with a sharp knife or razor blade and remove the two bottom leaves, The cuttings then enter a flowerpot filled with compost soil or a mixture of a portion of peat and a portion of coarse sand; a 10 cm pot holds about six cuttings.
With a pencil now small planting holes are drilled in the substrate. Insert the cuttings so that the leaves remain above the ground, then press down with your fingers. Then the substrate is well watered from above, the cuttings are marked and a transparent film is placed over the pot, which is attached with a rubber. To prevent the cuttings from coming in contact with the foil, it is best to make a frame of bent flower wire before putting it on. The cuttings are taken to a shady location in the cold frame or in a propagation bed with a constant temperature of 16° C for rooting.
After 4-6 weeks in the cold frame or 3 weeks in the propagation bed, the cuttings should have formed roots. You can check this by pulling very lightly on the plantlets. When roots have formed, you can remove the foil or remove the pot from the propagation bed. Finally, carefully remove the rooted cuttings from the soil and plant them in 7.5 cm pots of suitable potting soil.
The young plants are pressed firmly, placed in a shady cold frame and abundantly watered; the irrigation water should be able to drain well. The growing shoot tips of these young plants snap off after about 1 week to promote vigorous root growth.
The plants are kept in the closed cold frame during the winter and are planted outdoors in the spring as soon as the danger of frost has passed.
Unvertured partial cuttings
Most perennials with bulbous roots, such. As ox tongue, larkspur, sun bride, grass, lupins and scabious, can not only be multiplied by division but also by young shoots.
For this, first some of the basal, young shoots below the leaf approach about 7.5-10 cm are cut off. These cuttings are placed directly in the cold frame or in 7.5 cm pots, which are filled with a peat-sand mixture.
Spray the cuttings from above with water and keep the cold frame always closed. As soon as the cuttings drive out, you start to ventilate for longer and longer. After about 6 weeks, the cuttings are planted individually in 9 cm pots and in the autumn outdoors.
Semi-woody shoot cuttings
Many shrubs and trees such as ray stingray, orange flower, bearded flower or lavender can be propagated by cuttings in summer. Semi-woody cuttings are taken from annual records, which are already slightly lignified down, but are still in the growth phase and therefore are green and unfenced. Such cuttings are removed in the high and late summer. Until rooting requires this type of propagation little care, since you need a suitable propagation bed and must carefully monitor the water supply and shading. Only after 1-2 years, the plants can be set in their intended location in the field.
The about 15-20 cm long side shoots of the same year are suitable as cuttings. The cuttings are cut off with a knife or garden shears close to the main drive. Then remove at the lower rung part and cut off the shoot below the first leaf node. The large shoot tip is removed above a leaf, so that the cutting is 5-10 cm long.
Semi-woody cuttings often root better if you leave a piece of the main shoot at them. Some species, such as firethorn, do not form roots without this "appendage." The axillary tissue promotes rooting because it contains highly divisible cells.
First, the main shoot is cut off with several side shoots and possibly without flowers and then slanted obliquely with a sharp knife below a side shoot. With the same section from top to bottom, the side shoot with axillary tissue is separated from the main shoot. These cuttings should be about 5-7.5 cm long, shorten longer shoots from the top.
In hard-to-propagate plants you should pull several cuttings.
All cuttings, whether with or without axillary tissue - are best rooted in a suitable seed substrate, e.g. B. a mixture of peat and sand. A 7.5 cm pot can be planted with about five, a 12 cm pot with about ten cuttings.
The cuttings are placed about one-third of their length in the substrate, pressed firmly and well-watered with a fine spray attachment. You need a constantly humid environment, so that here the construction of a wire frame and subsequent covering with foil recommend. If you have large amounts of cuttings, they are in a suitable box, also covered with foil, in better hands. The trade offers for this purpose heated Vermehrungsbeete, which are, however, usually quite expensive.
The growing substrate should be maintained at a constant temperature of 16-18° C for most hardy plant species. Much of the cuttings are also rooted in unheated substrates, but that takes longer.
Once roots have formed, the cuttings must be slowly acclimated to the drier or colder environment in the field and hardened. The film is either slightly raised or perforated to allow air to the plants; too strong a light should be avoided if possible. The plantlets must never dry out.
If you want to grow several new shrubs from only a few mother plants, propagating from leaf cuttings is a recommended alternative, because leaf cuttings often thrive better than other cuttings.
Leaf cuttings are removed in late summer or early autumn from semi-woody side shoots that were formed in the spring. Each shoot should have several leaves and one bud in each leaf-ax.
Separate the shoots with pruning shears and then cut a sharp knife about 2 cm above and below a leaf knot, with the top cut straight and the bottom oblique. In this way, you get from a shoot three or four leaf cuttings. The bark of the cuttings is a little scratched a knife and dipped the ends and the wound site in a rooting agent.
Then insert the cuttings into substrate-filled pots. The buds should be just above the substrate surface. An 18 cm pot holds about twelve cuttings.
In camellias, the leaf cuttings should consist of only one leaf knot with a leaf and a shoot. Plant these cuttings in the substrate so that only the upper leaf is visible.
All leaf cuttings are only lightly sprayed with water after planting and then housed in the cold frame.