The Content Of The Article:
- Prevent apple scab preventively
- Scab, symptoms
- The steep career of apple scab
Successful apple scab fighting begins long before you see any symptoms, and is so natural that it was part of our normal gardening for our grandparents. For our grandparents the scab fungus was also a normal garden pest and the apple tree is a resistant pome fruit plant - only if you know what is different today, it becomes clear why you have the choice today: mushroom control with pesticides or fungal defense in the context of gardening, using natural and inexpensive means:
Prevent apple scab preventivelyPreventive fungal combat begins long before the first visible damage
Scab fungi on. If you are reading this article before purchasing the apple tree, you still have option # 1 to fight scab (and mildew) - buy a decent apple tree from a judicious apple tree breeder. That's it, and you have to pay attention to that:
- There are old, resilient apple varieties and modern, resistant apple varieties
- For resistant apple varieties, information about resistance breeding is worthwhile
- Not every resistant strain is suitable for every environment
- And proves that it was the disease susceptibility of the seed varieties that made resistance breeding necessary
- For the home garden old apple varieties without scab problems are available
- These are not only more resistant, but also score culinary and healthy ingredients
- Comprehensive list with 976 apple varieties: deutsche-genbank-obst.jki.bund.de/passport/index
If the apple tree is already there, you may be able to stop the scurf fungi from invading the garden from reaching the apple tree or clinging to it:
Old apple varietiesWith old apple varieties, you have a good chance of never seeing a scab fungus. This is how a fungal attack looks from the outset on combating apple culture:
- Choose a robust, resistant variety and plant it in a suitable location
- Never put apples in damp soil
- Never place apple trees in locations that are in the shade most of the day
- Do not put plants too close together (even in smaller gardens)
- Sufficient air and sun for each plant generally protects against fungal attack
- So orchards are planted today (orchard, Lower Saxony, June 2011), this proximity to the neighbors promotes fungal infection
- Old apple varieties can be processed on weak growing substrates to keep them small (info on pflanzlust.de)
- In these trees, the tree disc should be kept free, especially in the first years
- A few fungal defense plants (basil, chervil, garlic, chives, tagetes) and / or hygroscopic mulch can be found on the tree-pulley
- If scab occurs in the environment, fall foliage should be swept up and composted
- Not on top of the compost heap, where spores are blown, but well covered in the middle, possibly chopped beforehand
- Deciduous or fungal remains in the vegetation under the tree is a case of earthworms
- They pull plants (residues) populated with fruiting bodies into the soil and thus prevent their further development
- Enough earthworms are only available with "enough nature in the garden"
- Copper preparations and heavy mechanical tillage damage the earthworms
- Need-based nitrogen fertilization strengthens the skin tissue, too much nitrogen produces fungus-susceptible plant material
- Balanced pruned trees grow "quietly" and with early shoot termination, they better withstand mushroom attacks
- This includes z. For example, crop the apple tree in summer when it can close its cuts faster
- And this summer cut at the earliest mid / late August, so that no late shoot growth is stimulated
- And a trimming that keeps the tree light and airy
Fang once again vigorously spores in the garden.
Modern commercial varieties
In the modern working fruit varieties, the scab defense is more difficult because they are usually more easily affected by scab. All of the above precautionary measures should be taken as carefully as possible, in addition you can do the following:
- Lower the moisture pressure around the tree as much as possible
- From the implementation of a "planted in the moisture" tree to the trimming of proliferating neighboring plants are quite a few measures conceivable
- The lawn sprinkler should also be set up far from the tree
- Strengthen the tree with field horsetail mud, which strengthens the leaf surfaces
- Other plants are fungicidal in other ways
- For example, stinging nettle, garlic, onion, birch leaf Jauchen and Lebermooser extract, diluted to make the apple tree shed also fertilize the same
- If there is a suspicion of overwintering scab, preventive spraying is possible in warm weather
- On the Internet you will find more fungicidal plants (which may already be growing in your garden), instructions on manure production + dilution
Scab, symptomsIf the scab caught the apple tree, the following symptoms appear in the visible infestation stages:
- On the leaves, "magically painted" small, round, dark spots appear
- Usually signs of an infestation in the preseason, which produces symptoms in the spring
- Wintered spores benefit from prolonged wet weather
- If this prevails at the time of sprouting, the fungus is flushed to maximum sensitive, freshly expelled plant mass, which he colonized immediately
Combat visible scab symptoms
Natural combatThe ultimate remedy for visible scab symptoms is very natural: Affected plant parts are removed from the plant by cutting.
When this is done, the preventive measures and measures will continue and can now be used, in part, directly against the fungus: all plants with fungicidal ingredients also act as sprays against the fungi on the tree. A first overview of the plants, which can come to your help, you get z. On biozac.de/biozac/biogart/jauchen.htm; on holzl.de/Biogarten/Jauchen.htm is descriptive and detailed the preparation of Jauchen (teas, extracts, broths) described.
Tip: Experimenting gardeners search the Internet for "plants with fungicidal ingredients", perhaps the plant has proved to be anti-fungal in the numerous current research projects, which must be cut back / weed anyway.
Meaningful fungal control is a year-round package in which the preventive control (fungus from the tree keep away) including cutting measures and appropriate care and the fight against visible symptoms (or the "behind these symptoms" mushrooms) complement each other.
With these funds, you will be able to control scab (and apple powdery mildew) on all apple trees that grow in reasonably natural surroundings at reasonably suitable location with reasonably good care - without the use of human, animal and / or environmentally harmful pesticides. If you have planted one of the modern fruit cultivars in the garden, scab infestation is more likely and usually not so easy to curb. When a susceptible strain encounters adverse circumstances, not only does fighting the scab become difficult and frustrating, but it usually tugs so many stressful influences on this poor plant that separation for gardener and plant is the better solution.
Fighting scab with pesticidesAgainst apple scab, two pesticides are approved for use in home and allotments, Duaxo Universal Mushroom Spray (+ 2 other names with identical ingredients) and Flint:
Duaxo with difenoconazole, "harmful by ingestion or inhalation", "release to the environment" may only be used in apple, pear at developmental stages 10-74 in a certain number of treatments and application rate, subject to numerous conditions; in Flint with trifloxystrobin the conditions of application are similar, it may be treated pome fruit in developmental stages 65-85.
All this must be on the pack and be followed carefully because z. B. in the editions find the rules against resistance. The remedies are not harmless with it, as bees carry Trifloxystrobin from plant to plant, can be read here greenpeace.de/files/publications/20140415-pollenreport-gift-im-bienengepaeck.pdf.
For example, even our government does not even consider it useful to use pesticides against apple scab, as you can read at umweltbundesamt.de/leckeres-gesundes-kernost-aus-eigenem-anbau#Kernobst-Pflanzenschutzmittel. The Federal Environmental Agency also means the wrong output (let's face it, how many home gardeners know when the apple tree development stage is 10-74 or 65-85 or where they get the "extended BBCH scale", in which these stages of development are to look up?), but names several other important reasons. These are best understood if you know how apple scab became the "most important fungal disease in pome fruit growing":
The steep career of apple scabApple scab is considered the most important fungal disease - in intensive fruit farming. From breeding and growing the first apple trees (about 3000 years ago) to about 1940/50 apple scab was not a problem. He appeared, like several other mushrooms in the garden, was pushed back in the context of normal gardening, to a few Schorfflecken on the apple peel bothered no one. No fruit farmer either, and in the home garden apple scab was no problem at all, because the overall picture of the apple was realistic: a living fruit that gets stains and scars in the growth process (even the worm in the apple was normal and did not even lead to delicate young ones Ladies fainting).
In the past century, overarching developments led to the current crisis in our conventional agriculture, including fruit farming. As the industrialization / growth of the cities increased, so did the demand for fruit. After the Second World War, the demand for every kind of food increased. Advances in science and technology should bring help, so the chemical-pharmaceutical industry got a new field of activity (which just had a sales hole, poison gas, chemical weapons and drugs for soldiers were no longer so in demand after the war). In fact, the use of immediately plant-available artificial fertilizer initially brought a significant increase in production, also in fruit growing.
That was not enough, the exponential growth should continue, now it went to the fields (densely planted monocultures without natural habitat on the Feldrain) and the orchards (which became orchards with small trees in tightly planted rows). At the same time, the progress of the trade, retail stores were displaced by supermarkets and discounters whose associations determined customer needs - true to the motto "what sells, is produced".
For approval of the critical production process, the trade association also equal, how well that worked, shows the Food Industry Association, "Federation for Food Law and Food Science eV" on his website: In a prominent place the visitor receives the button "crisis manager database", of course only accessible to members.
In the course of this development, the apples and varieties were cultivated. From the beginning of the 20th century until 1970, around 1,500 German varieties of apples were replaced by a handful of faceless new varieties (in 1972, 56% of 'Golden Delicious' filled the fruit shelves). In 2011, the result of a comprehensive study was published: The apple varieties of modern industrial fruit growing can be traced back to six "parent varieties", all disease susceptible in various directions.
In breeding these varieties, the apple not only lost its variety: because product improvement only increases profit as long as a product can be improved and the apple has not improved after 3000 years of breeding, another breeding goal was to increase profits. They were created with uniform apples, easy to transport and store well and always look good. At the same time, modern commercial apples lost taste and healthy ingredients; In addition, the health and resilience of these "trading dreams" produced apple trees.
So scab fungi were common pathogens in apple cultivation, in the course of this development, apple powdery mildew was promoted from a troublesome garden appearance to serious disease (on the orchard); Prevention and control of scab has the same effect against it.
Most of the production and trade industry sees no need to correct the maldevelopment, but fights the symptoms with fungicides. Most pesticides are sprayed on our "dessert apples", 70-80% of them fungicides (especially apple scab). You can read at pflanzen-forschung-ethik.de/konkret/1459.apfelschorf-bekaempfung.html, a page of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, where you can also find the results of a fungicide survey in 50 fruit farms 2007-2011: An average of 24 fungicide applications, per farm and per season.
Meanwhile, many customers avoid the commercial apples, which should be the main reason why in the home garden again more fruit trees are planted - unfortunately in the mass trade for hobby gardeners are sold on a large scale exactly the apple varieties from the trade, with their susceptibility to disease the fruit growers have such difficulties.