Remove bamboo - permanently destroy rhizomes

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All outcropping bamboos with leptomorphic rhizomes, especially all Phyllostachys, should only be planted with rhizome barrier. Respectively may only be planted with Rhizomsperre, liability law, you are committed namely in foothills driving bamboo plants to install a rhizome barrier. But there are more modest bamboos:
Not every bamboo wants world domination
Bamboo is not the same as bamboo: there are bamboos whose rhizomes grow so deep into the soil that the often sold rhizome barrier of 70 cm is not an obstacle and the bamboo with its subterranean rhizomes easily grows up in a growing season conquered to 10 meters garden underworld. If you are reading this article, if such a bamboo is still quite small, but without (sufficiently deep) rhizome barrier growing in the garden, you should run to the spade to start excavating with the - long lasting -. Other bamboos you can watch calmly continue to grow, because in the worst case you have to dig out a really thick root, but has largely remained in place. Bamboos form two very different growth forms of the subterranean rhizomes, which also determine whether and how much a bamboo spreads: dangerous leptomorphic rhizomes and harmless pachymorphic rhizomes.
Bambus, botanical Bambusoideae, represents one of the twelve subfamilies, into which the family of the Süßgräser is divided. This subfamily is divided into three tribes:
  • Arundinarieae, 28 genera, 533 species, woody grasses of the temperate zone
  • Bambuseae, 66 genera, 784 species, woody grasses of the tropics and subtropics
  • Olyreae, 21 genera, 122 species, non-woody (herbaceous) grasses from the southern part of the Americas
Makes 115 species with 1439 species of bamboo, and from each genus bamboos are cultivated for ornamental purposes, which calls for clarity. Subsequently, the bamboo genera are classified according to the growth habit of the rhizome. You can search your bamboo in the alphabetical list (the "nice", "not so bad" and "evil") bamboos and then read the tips for removing and permanently destroying its rhizomes:
The nice bamboo
belongs to the tribe Bambuseae, in which the following genera are to be found:
  • Actinocladum
  • Alvimia
  • Apoclada
  • Arthrostylidium
  • Athroostachys
  • Atractantha
  • Aulonemia
  • Bambusa
  • bonia
  • Cathariostachys
  • Cephalostachyum
  • Chusquea
  • Colanthelia
  • Cyrtochloa
  • Davidsea
  • Decaryochloa
  • Dendrocalamus
  • Dendrochloa
  • Didymogonyx
  • Dinochloa
  • Elytrostachys
  • Eremocaulon
  • Filgueirasia
  • Fimbribambusa
  • Gigantochloa
  • Glaziophyton
  • Greslania
  • Guadua
  • Hickelia
  • Hitchcock Ella
  • Holttumochloa
  • Kinabaluchloa
  • Maclurochlora
  • Melocalamus
  • Melocanna
  • Merostachys
  • Mullerochloa
  • Nastus
  • Neohouzeaua
  • Neololeba
  • Neomicrocalamus
  • Ochlandra
  • Olmeca
  • Oreobambos
  • Otatea
  • Oxytenanthera
  • Parabambusa
  • Perrierbambus
  • Phuphanochloa
  • Pinga
  • Pseudobambusa
  • Pseudostachyum
  • Pseudoxytenanthera
  • Racemobambos
  • Rhipidocladum
  • Schizostachyum
  • Sirochloa
  • Soejatmia
  • Sphaerobambos
  • Stapletonia
  • Teinostachyum
  • Temochloa
  • Temburongia
  • Thyrsostachys
  • Valiha
If your bamboo has been with you, you can sit back and relax with regard to rhizomes and their removal. These bamboos form pachymorphic rhizomes, with a short or long rhizome neck, depending on the variety. The rhizome bodies of the pachymorphic rhizomes are always thick and short, so these species form coherent clumps (rather than sprawling subterranean nets). The shorter the rhizome neck, the more compact the eyrie of the stems. However, you will never lose control of a bamboo with pachymorphic rhizome; in the case of species with a very long rhizome neck, in the worst case (in the case of very old plants), it becomes more of a digging habit.
However, it is not very likely that you have to do such a digging to remove rhizomes: if you got a bamboo from the above list and he is now in the garden (because you told the donor and he told you that he was hardy), it is already over with the relaxing. These bamboo species come from the tropics and subtropics of the New and Old World, they are not hardy for us. Exceptions are cultivars of Bambusa: Bambusa multiplex 'Elegans' should endure to -9° C, 'Alphonse Karr' even more than - 11° C. Bambuseae are hepaxanth = the plants die after the only flowering time of their life, whole groups of a kind always bloom at the same time. Your salesperson should be able to tell you when the last time the bamboo has flowered and at what intervals the flowering experience.
The not so bad bamboo
belongs to the tribe Olyreae, which includes these genera:
  • Agnesia
  • Arber Ella
  • Buergersiochloa
  • Cryptochloa
  • Diandrolyra
  • Ekmanochloa
  • Eremitis
  • Froesiochloa
  • Lithachne
  • Maclurolyra
  • Mniochloa
  • Olyra
  • Pariana
  • Parodiolyra
  • Piresia
  • Piresiella
  • Raddia
  • Raddiella
  • Rehia
  • Reitzia
  • Sucrea
The Olyreae are more closely related to the Bambuseae than to the Arundinarieae, forming weak to well-formed, leptomorphic rhizomes whose potential they will become acquainted with immediately. The Olyreae are so harmless that they have their home in South America and the Caribbean and can be kept with us only in the bucket. There, the Olyreae are allowed to stretch their rhizomes towards the wall of the bucket, Olyreae grow as soft (herbaceous) grasses and not as woody giant grasses. The Olyreae are probably only a few species of hapaxanth (dying after flowering), which could mean that among them several flowering bamboos hide. But since bamboos bloom not only in very large intervals, but also at irregular intervals, unfortunately, nothing is known yet.
The really hardy bamboos with us come stupidly from another tribe:
Caution: evil bamboo
Almost all members of the following listed species of the tribe Arundinarieae can make your garden life difficult without rhizome barrier, some very quickly very difficult:
  • acidosasa
  • ampelocalamus
  • Arundinaria
  • Bashania
  • Bergbambos: newly discovered African species
  • Chimonobambusa
  • Chimonocalamus
  • Drepanostachyum
  • Fargesia: Forms Arundinarieae-atypical pachymorphic rhizomes and grows in clumps, many Fargesia species are hardy to over -20° C and therefore widespread
  • Ferrocalamus
  • Gaoligongshania
  • Gelidocalamus
  • Himalayacalamus
  • Indocalamus
  • Indosasa
  • Kuruna: Especially in Sri Lanka newly discovered species, temperate climate habitual bamboo with pachymorphic, short-necked rhizome
  • Oldeania: just newly discovered African genus
  • Oligostachyum
  • × Phyllosasa
  • Phyllostachys: Because of its good winter hardiness popular with us, because of its sometimes endless rhizomes highly dangerous
  • Pleioblastus
  • Pseudosasa
  • Sarocalamus
  • Sasa
  • Semiarundinaria
  • Shibataea
  • Sinobambusa
  • Thamnocalamus
  • Vietnamocalamus
  • Yushania
The bamboos of the tribe Arundinarieae usually form leptomorphic rhizomes with well-formed stalk bases. Leptomorphic rhizomes develop long thin rhizome bodies, often smaller in diameter, than the forming stalks and short rhizome necks. The leptomorphic rhizomes drift foothills, which branch almost indefinitely underground, more and more and again and up to a few meters per season. In addition, Arundinarieae flower at intervals of 2 to 200 years and then die off - often all the representatives or large groups of a species together and simultaneously.
Do not stick to the default pachymorphic or leptomorphic rhizomes, but have their own ideas, eg. B. the amphipodialen growth. These are growth forms with leptomorphic rhizomes, in which the buds of the stalk bases form further culms. This leads to bestockung and to each horstartigen distribution of the stalks. The stalk bases resemble pachymorphic rhizomes, but are not thicker than the stalks. This growth form occurs in the genera:
  • Arundinaria
  • Indocalamus
  • Pseudosasa, Pseudosasa brevivaginata
  • Shibataea
  • Sasa
  • Yushania
There are also bamboo species that form leptomorphic and pachymorphic rhizomes on a plant that do z. B. some species of the genus Chusquea. They form on the lateral buds of leptomorphic rhizomes pachymorphic rhizomes, which then branch further and at the end of which the stems form. How "dangerous" the rhizomes can become must be explored per species.
Individual bamboo species with their own variants of rhizome growth:
  • Bambusa vulgaris: Pachymorphic rhizomes with longer necks, less compact, wide-spreading clumps
  • Chusquea fendleri: Forms dense bundles of stalks and at the same time leptomorphic and pachymorphic rhizomes through tillering
  • Dendrocalamus membranaceus: Short-necked, pachymorphic rhizomes, separate, very compact clumps
  • Fargesia nitida: Pachymorphic rhizomes with longer necks, less compact clumps
  • Melocanna baccifera: long-necked, pachymorphic rhizome, open growth with distributed stalks
  • Phyllostachys edulis: Leptomorphic rhizome with open growth, distributed stalks
  • Semiarundinaria fastuosa: Forms thicket stalks, long-necked pachymorphic rhizomes through tillering
  • Shibataea kumasasa: Small-sized broom bamboo, thick stalks of tussocks, tillering, long-necked pachymorphic rhizomes
  • Yushania niitakayamensis: Amphipodial growth with associated leptomorphic rhizomes, but interesting groundcover dwarfism with fairly good winter hardiness
Subsequent installation of a rhizome barrier
Whenever leptomorphic rhizomes are even involved in a bamboo, this bamboo without rhizome barrier stands in a garden and can survive in our gardens, there is need for action. Here are your options:
  • Install additional rhizome barrier
  • Possible, but labor-intensive
  • Make a narrow ditch around the planting area
  • Mini diggers, trenchers, hardened drainage spade and pickaxe make the job easier
  • Lower rhizome barrier and allow to stand about 10 cm
  • Fill the trench and compact the soil well
  • Cut off all saw blades outside the barrier directly at the bottom
  • You will have to repeat that for around three years now
  • With decreasing intensity, at some point all rhizomes are dead, because they do not survive without leaves
Remove bamboo with leptomorphic rhizomes, permanently destroy rhizomes
Also possible, but still much more labor intensive:
  • Destroy as much bamboo as possible over the earth: wait for new shoots and cut off all the stalks near the ground
  • Bamboo + rhizome must be dug up, as completely as possible
  • Equally complete will work with a well-used bamboo only with the excavator
  • You could get help by offering the bamboo in a network of interested gardening friends
  • Then at least many people dig, not only you
If you do not catch all the rhizomes during the extermination, eventually you will need more or less rework. When a few scattered stalks emerge, you can try to weaken the bamboo more and more by immediately cutting or mowing each new shoot close to the ground. Conducted consistently, it eventually kills the rhizomes in the soil because they feed on the photosynthesis of the straws above the earth. Further digging is not necessarily advisable: one of the most common and annoying bamboos, Phyllostachys, sends its foothills radially in all directions, and any remaining root over 5 inches in length continues to drift... so if you just dig somewhere where a stalk comes up They just make the subterranean roots network denser. It might be better, starting from the original bamboo to understand where the rhizome comes from and after cutting it with a spade cut in this direction in a thick piece of black tube to pack, well packed with several layers of foil. In the opposite direction, you can then follow the "rhizome cable" and dig out...
If you want to use weed killer (which should not be recommended here because of the increasing media coverage of harm caused by the active ingredients), make sure that you need a weed killer for monocot weeds. If you use a "normal" weedkiller for dicots we do not do anything to the bamboo, but only kill nearby flowers and bushes - the weed killer against monocot weeds only "kills" your lawn except bamboo.
Bamboo with leptomorphic rhizomes must either be destroyed or subsequently restricted by blocking rhizomes and eliminating outward-coming shoots, unless it eventually sends a stalk through the living room floor. Some work, but comfort yourself, there are also people who have sown a sequoia in their garden - which does not send root through the floor, but simply overturns the house.

Video Board: How to kill bamboo without removing the roots.

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