The Content Of The Article:
- Symptoms - Recognize shotgun disease
- Measures against shotgun disease fungus
Shotgun is a fungus that perforates the leaves of stone fruit plants. However, you will only experience this final phase of the infestation if the fungus inhabits a fruit tree of the genus Prunus in inclement weather conditions, which has too moist soil underneath, and you do nothing against the fungal infestation. And fighting the shotgun disease with natural home remedies is not the "eco-variant", but what the legislator provides when he obligates gardeners in the Plant Protection Act to observe "good professional practice". It does not take more than sensible gardening to stop the fungus, and most of it comes from home remedies.
Symptoms - Recognize shotgun diseaseThe name of the shotgun disease is directly derived from the symptoms that it causes at its most advanced stage: The infested leaves look as if a crazy gardener had fired several rifle loads of shot at the tree.
Inset for city kids: Shot is the nickname for the small metal shotguns that hunters shoot at bunnies and other unfortunate animals in the buttocks (and because these bullets used to be made of lead, they poisoned all the hunters a little at a time Had shot in your roast).
But this is the final stage, the beginning is much more harmless, here is an overview of the biological development of shotgun mushroom on your fruit tree:
- "Shot Shot in the Leaf" is the final stage of stone fruit leaves that have been perforated by a fungus called Wilsonomycescarpophilus
- W. carpophilus is the current botanical name, you will often come across the old name Stigmina carpophila and the synonym Clasterosporium carpophilum
- If not enough has been researched for the most common names, quite different synonyms may appear, the mushroom has 23 synonymous names to offer
- If the weather is so wet in spring that the stone fruit tree often takes longer to dry (or not really dry), the shotgun mushroom is looking forward to
- This does not necessarily mean noticeable and noticeable precipitation; Frequent and / or intense fogging provides enough moisture to the fungus
- A few representatives of this mushroom species are already sitting in your fruit tree
- A garden completely free of shotgun mushrooms is about as likely as a community in which there is no athlete's foot
- The fungus infests the young leaves as soon as they sprout
- "In the plant" comes the fungus by spores penetrate the epidermis or stomata in the tissue
- First, small bright dots with a diameter of a few millimeters appear
- They turn reddish after a few days (because the fungus germinates) and grow up to a diameter of about 0.5 cm
- The sharply demarcated patches become blurred in outline, more brownish in color and are often surrounded by delicately colored yellow-reddish zones
- All this is a sign of a (usually futile) defense reaction of the plant that wants to delimit affected from healthy tissue
- At some point (usually after about 14 days), therefore, the leaf spots break through, then they are there, the shotgun holes
- If he manages to do so, the fungus gets into the shoots, which also get small reddish spots that get bigger and more brownish
- He succeeds, especially with peaches, to penetrate the instincts of fallen leaves into the shoots
- Thinner (peach) shoots can be circled by the patches, then they die off
- Thicker shoots usually survive the fungus, but can form cancerous bile as a defense reaction
- The leaves turn yellow after breakthrough of the holes over the entire surface (or the little surface that is still there)
- Often you can see the damaged areas rubber flow, a disease of its own, which can only be cured by cutting away
- Buds, flowers, fruits can also be affected
- Fruits show sunken, possibly corked brown spots with a red border, crippling, drying up or then decaying
- Heavily damaged leaves fall over the summer, affected fruits follow the leaves
- At the end of the season, only the top of the crown is leafy in extreme cases, while the rest of the tree looks rather bare
- When the mushroom has come so far, it hibernates in the tree, e.g. in affected shoots and stuck fruit mummies
- But above all, it hibernates in fallen fruit mummies, leaves, vegetation under the tree, if not every leaf fall is disposed of immediately and the soil can dry
- Winter cold and frost make little difference to the fungus, even less to its shoot mycelium, and to the resistant conidia (asexual reproductive spores)
- New spores will be formed early next spring
- They spread with every rain and every drop of water, and the game starts again
- In the case of renewed infestation, the lowest leaves usually get the most, since the spores are flushed down from the infection sites
The most important of the laurel cherry is the immediate grip on the scissors, because the leaves in the evergreen plant more firmly than in the Laubfall variants on the shoot hanging - cherry laurel does not throw off even infected leaves, which makes the infection really too late trimming to flower,
Consequences and relevance of shotgun diseaseWithout treatment, the shotgun disease in the infestation season leads to crop failure and a more or less bare tree. When the fungus is extremely developing and spreading in humid weather, the tree suffers altogether. If the disease is allowed to strike again every year without treatment, it can eventually lead to the death of a tree. In this warning certainly another aspect plays a role: If a tree is cared for by a gardener who sets the shotgun disease no limits even if the infestation has assumed threatening proportions, it is likely that this gardener is not about his Trees take care of. Trees in a weakened state can then become dangerous even a shotgun mushroom.
In general, however, it can be stated that shotgun shots only become a problem in regions with a particularly moist, precipitation-rich climate and / or constant fogging / thawing (altitude in the low mountain range). On trees that should not be planted in such regions at all, in particularly unfavorable spring weather, and when the "gardener" does not care about his tree at all. In low rainfall areas, you would probably need to soak the cherry tree daily with the lawn sprinkler to make the shotgun mushroom a problem (which, incidentally, should always be avoided in all Prunus),
The Schrotschusskrankheit is not a new phenomenon, the trees recently threatened uncannily - in 1853 Wilsonomyces carpophilus was discovered in France, first mentioned in Iran in 1947, described in 1959 by the first German scientist. Since then, fruit growers have been living with the fungus throughout the world where Prunus species are cultivated, which is why the shotgun disease also carries many beautiful foreign names: "shothole disease" and "gumspot of stone fruit", "shoot blight" of cherry, peach, plum, stone fruit, "brûlure corynéenne", "criblure des amygdalées", "cribado de los frutales", "tiro de munición del durazno". In all these years and in all these countries, the shotgun mushroom has not seriously endangered any Prunus species, so the fungus can not be really bad. However, even in most of these countries, he has no chance to "wallow in his beloved damp cold wet" when placed in a wrong, wet location - the ideal temperature for infections is between 14 and 18° C and comes in countries south of us in the growing season at most at night.
possible confusion"Shot Shot" by bacterial firing is also favored by humid weather (at the first infestation at the time of flowering, fruit ripening and leaf fall in autumn). But you do not really have to identify the fungus. The announced immediate measures on the first spot are always the same: Cut out as many harmful organisms as possible from the plant, dispose of cutting material and fall foliage, avoiding further contagion, strengthen the plant. Even later, both pests must be kept in check by normal gardening, because in the house and allotments against both fungicides are not approved (for a good reason, in human-friendly mixtures + quantities of fungicides fungus and bacteria would harden only a little more).
The same applies to plum shot (fungus Phoma prunorum) and plum pollen (fungus Sphaceloma pruni), which are included as part of general mushroom prevention in the garden or in the control of shotgun disease.
tipIn a well-run garden, you will hardly ever find yourself in the embarrassment of having to choose a pathogen.The whole "Kroppzeug", mushrooms, bacteria and Co., in the reasonably natural garden by preventive gardening (as you can see in the article "shotgun disease - what to do against shotgun?" Described) held in check. If symptoms of a disease show up late in the garden year, it is usually much easier for you to determine the pest after the damage pattern and the time of onset of the damage.
Measures against shotgun disease fungusUnder "Symptoms" we have presented the complete life cycle of a shotgun mushroom. Which of course does not mean that you should "give your mushroom much of this life cycle". On the contrary, as explained in the tip, it is best to make life difficult for the fungus if it has not yet conquered your tree. If he can still get cherry, plum, almond, you should fight the fungus as soon as you notice him.
Depending on the stage of fungal attack, the following measures against the fungus are recommended:
- The shotgun blasts above all the newly expelled young leaves (and "shoots only in these holes", because only now is the plant fast enough to produce the circular defense reaction)
- Immediately cut away infected leaves and dispose of them so that further infection is avoided
- If buds, flowers and later the fruits show discoloration / stains, they are also cut away and destroyed
- Make sure you even clear the treetops and cut branches so that leaves dry faster
- Always disinfect scissors whenever a new area is attacked
- If possible, lower moisture pressure around the plant
- If z. For example, secondary shrubs "standing in the wind", which should be cut or softened anyway, is now the time
- To "reduce moisture pressure" also includes setting the lawn sprinkler sufficiently far away from woody plants
- Possibly. should be considered moving the plant to a drier location for autumn
- Strengthen until then or at all plant
- For example, by planting the tree disc with anti-fungal plants such as garlic, onion, leeks
- Garlic onionsauce is a plant antibiotic that can be used for spraying
- This is quite common, because garlic-onion sauce does not harm, but fertilizes
- Immediately after detection of infestation spray 2 to 3 times at intervals of three days
- Then spray once a week, from spring to just before harvest
- Make 1 portion of garlic + 1 portion of onion, bring to boil with 10 parts of water, simmer for at least 30 minutes
- After cooling, strain through the sieve and dilute with 10 times more water before spraying
- The plant strengthening also serves good nutrition of the tree with slow-acting organic fertilizer
- Retain nitrogen, even with readily available nitrogen in organic fertilizer (worm humus, etc.)
- Commonly used against fungi plant tonics are nettle and horsetail manure
- Ready to buy there is plant strengthening z. B. under the name Neudo-Vital
- Even the sometimes recommended clay preparations can strengthen plants (which lack the appropriate ingredients)
- But only applied alone, with copper or sulfur are prohibited plant protection products
- If you are lucky (or have consistently worked), the haunting is over in July
- Older foliage is usually too resistant to the shotgun mushroom
- In addition, the fungus has now become much too warm, which is why he usually no longer manages to infect new plant mass
- But it gets colder in between, the fungus can then settle on delicate shoots (which also have to be cut off)
- And it will be colder again in the fall, surviving "mushroom remains" try to come after the leaf fall over open leaf approaches in the tree
- In case of doubt, this late infection is opposed to a new garlic-onion spray cure
- Fall foliage and fruit mummies should be just as consistently removed at first attack as cut away plant parts
If you consistently tackle the fungus in all of these areas, you have a good chance of avoiding shotgun shots on the leaves. If, in the season following the infestation, you also see some of the "shotgun disease - what to do against shotgun shots?" They have a good chance of never seeing holes in the leaves of their Prunus species. And all without highly toxic to the environment fungicides such as dithianone, trifloxystrobin and Co.(to be sprayed in intensive commercial fruit growing) or to "fumble" with critical metals and non-metals such as copper and sulfur (also only allowed in commercial organic orchards, where care can be controlled when used in contrast to private households).