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Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum) is one of the most popular garden and balcony plants and the selection of commercially available varieties is large, They are available with single and multi-colored, filled and unfilled flowers. Although they are Herbstblüher, they are offered almost all year round. Botanically, the genus of chrysanthemums belongs to the daisy family (Asteraceae). The more than 40 species are mainly distributed in East Asia and were cultivated as ornamental plants in China more than 2,000 years ago. In the 17th century, the first plants came to Europe in six color variants. Today there are over 5,000 different varieties, but not all of them are hardy.
The frost-sensitive varieties are offered in the fall as pot chrysanthemums and are a colorful adornment for balcony and terrace or are used as cut flowers for the vase. New to the market is the increasing proportion of winter hardy garden chrysanthemums. In the trade they are often offered under the name "Garden Mums". These varieties are particularly robust, because unlike the conventional pot varieties that the gardener attracts in the greenhouse, the garden chrysanthemums grow up outdoors. This makes them more robust, which is especially evident in rain and bad weather periods. In addition, the fresh air stay intensifies the intensity of their beautiful autumn colors and they are characterized by a longer-lasting flowering period. The reason: The perennials open not all flowers at the same time, but in spurts. If you triturate withered things, you can look forward to the plants for many weeks. Incidentally, the shelf life also depends on the color of the flowers: Tests have shown that pink, purple and violet varieties bloom the longest. Also in terms of flower abundance, chrysanthemums are unrivaled.
The wildflower (Chrysanthemum carinatum) is also suitable as an intermediate plant for summer flower and perennial beds
Only when the nights are cooler, the buds of the undemanding shrubs sprout. The fall beauties enjoy the sun and thrive in the bed on nutrient-rich soils that should be neither too dry nor too wet. Especially winter wet they can not tolerate bad. In loamy soils a drainage of gravel or sand is required.
As soloists or planting partners in planters, chrysanthemums play a special role. Pot grasses such as Kentucky, Chinese Moss, Sedge and Feather Grass benefit from the bright flower colors of the chrysanthemums, while giving playful lightness to arrangements on the patio, balcony or house entrance. Compact varieties of rosemary, catnip, fat hen, curry herb or Buntblättrige as purple bells (Heuchera) also prove to be an attractive court. In spacious terrace containers you can let your creativity run wild. The plants should be placed close to each other, because they will grow only slightly in the coming weeks.
Recommended November bloomers include the reddish-brown, filled 'focal point', the lemon-yellow 'Citronella', the purple-pink 'Swiss land' and the pompon-flowered, cream-colored 'White Bouquet'. Particularly well-proven in terms of winter hardiness and stability are 'Anja's Bouquet' (pink violet), 'Bees' (orange yellow) and 'Hebe' (soft pink).
The pomponblütige, cream-colored 'White Bouquet' is one of the recommended November bloomers
Planting and care
For colorful autumn arrangements, the chrysanthemums are planted in high-quality potting soil in matching planters in September, keeping them evenly moist. They hardly need fertilizer during their relatively short flowering season, as a rule, the nutrient supply of the potting soil is sufficient. Hardy garden chrysanthemums can be planted in the bed after flowering, as long as the soil is frost-free. If you want to survive the winter well, put the plants in the bed as early as possible so that they can root. In damp locations, they have problems. Better is a dry place, for example near the house wall. The soil should be nutrient-rich, calcareous and well drained.
Only when the young shoots sprout from the ground in March with the mild temperatures, it is time for pruning. The withered is cut as close to the ground as possible with scissors, without injuring the young shoots. An occasional pruning of the plant in the season promotes a dense growth. The same applies to the first flower approaches - the chrysanthemum branches more and flowers more lush. In general, the perennial shrubs grow more broadly in the second year. Feed your chrysanthemums in the bed each spring with some garden compost and horn shavings.
Chrysanthemums are best grown in the spring by splitting the plant.Pot chrysanthemums can also be multiplied by cuttings from summer to autumn: cut some young shoots with a sharp knife near the base, remove the lower leaves and cut the cuttings. Put the knife just below a leaf knot. You can put the cuttings in pots or pots with moist seed soil. Then cover the containers with a transparent plastic hood or put a foil bag over them. To grow, the plants need a bright, 20 degrees warm place. The soil is kept slightly moist and the cuttings regularly sprayed with rainwater until roots have formed. Late-bred offspring is overwintered in bright and cool in the house, summer cuttings of winter hardy varieties can be planted in the garden in the fall.
Chrysanthemums are the classic for the late autumn terrace
Winter protection and wintering
Planted chrysanthemums are covered with several layers of fir twigs for protection against the first frosts. On the other hand, the plants would rot immediately under a damp layer of leaves. Potted plants spend the best time in a bright and cool neighborhood, ideally an unheated greenhouse. In mild winters and with good protection, you can bring the plants in pots over the cold season, provided that the planters are sufficiently large. If in doubt, simply lower the chrysanthemums and pot into the soil.
Diseases and pests
Chrysanthemums are attacked by miner flies. These drill the leaves and lay their eggs. The larvae eat passages between the upper and lower skin of the leaves. A fight is only allowed with pest-free neem. The white chrysanthemum rust makes itself felt by 0.5 to two centimeters large spots on the leaf top. They are greenish white or yellow and later have a brown center. On the underside there are pustules with flour-like fluff. As soon as the first spots appear you can treat the plants with suitable fungicides.