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Some plants even react more than indignant to a pruning. How many conifers:
Which trees belong to the conifers?The conifers or softwoods are botanically referred to as Coniferales, often Pinales. It is the largest surviving group of bare-seeded plants whose seeds are not protected by carpels, but mature in cones. The Coniferales include:
- the Araucaria Family (Araucariaceae),
- the headwort plants (Cephalotaxaceae),
- the cypress family (Cupressaceae),
- Pinaceae (Pinaceae - Pine and Spruce),
- the Podacarpaceae,
- the umbrella fir plants (Sciadopityaceae)
- and the yew plants (Taxaceae)
Most conifers also grow monopodial, branching off with their side branches of a main trunk. This main trunk forms a continuous axis. It has a so-called meristem at the top, a tissue of undifferentiated cells that allows growth through cell division. This top meristem grows acroton. The term acrotony refers to a growth form that promotes growth in the upper part. The deeper shoots and all shoots that form close to the main stem, remain in their growth.
In the case of conifers, the top meristem grows to a particular extent, which develops the shoot of the previous year every year somewhat higher. Overall, the acrotone habit leads to the typical shape of most conifers: a well-growing main shoot, which tends to rise in the center of the plant, otherwise increased shoot and leaf formation in the entire outer area of the plant, in the faint interior, the intensity of the branching reduced by the acrotony.
In the lower area new shoots grow outward, the higher it goes, the closer to the main trunk are the newly emerging shoots, until at the top the lonely tip grows vertically. This results in a cone shape that is green on the outside and does not get any new branches inside.
Cut conifersExactly this growth form is the reason why most conifers should hardly be circumcised. When you cut the tip, the conifers do not grow any larger at all, the lower (differently colored) area of the clipped shoot is genetically unprogrammed for growth. However, you can also take advantage of this amazing fact by deliberately slowing down your conifers at a certain height. However, you should keep in mind that this will forever make the natural growth habit impossible, the growth that is developing now, you would not like it.
It is similarly disturbing for further growth if you cut the green side shoots too far: Wherever you enter areas where the branches already have a different color, the plant has already stopped growing. So you always have to stay in the area that's still set for growth with your conifer cutting.
The tips should therefore be cut from the beginning once or twice a year, in spring and late summer. Only then will you have a chance to curb too rapid growth without producing bald spots. The freshly trimmed branches should not be lit directly from the sun, then they could dry out and would not grow. After the cut, the conifers are well poured and fertilized so they can recover quickly.
Different growth formsOf course, not all of the conifers identified above will grow in exactly the same way. The Araukarien develop z. B. instead needles broad flat leaves, as well as the cypress family and the Steineibengewächse (among which the genus Phyllocladus instead of leaves flat leaf-like short shoots, so-called phyllocladiene forms).
In the majority of conifers, the leaves are evergreen, larch (Larix), bald cypress (Taxodium) and dawn redwood (Metasequoia) lose their foliage in autumn and are leafless during the winter. The pine does not grow as a cone for life, it develops a umbrella-shaped flattening in old age. These growth exceptions can also be significant for cutting ability:
Edible softwoodsThus, the yew is known as the only European softwood species for its good ripeness, it also continues to grow after a cut. It also forms a dense growth inside, which is why yews can be well planted as dense sight protection hedges. They are even suitable for geometric or figurative shaped cuts, which was already used in the Renaissance and in many baroque gardens gladly.
Yew trees can be pruned in the spring just before they start sprouting, if necessary, but at any other time (be careful between March and September, they could disturb brooding birds).
Pines can be cut well, the mountain pine can z. B. can certainly be used as a hedge. Pines can be pruned in April just before budding, cautiously again in June or September if necessary, or in winter during the resting phase. Pines are known as undemanding and well-grown.
The pine family also includes the spruce, but generally only grows very poorly after a cut. However, the spruce is used as a hedge because it is opaque all year round, it does not throw off their needles in winter. The quite fast growing coniferous wood is suitable for. B. as a cost-effective privacy for large plots.
It should then be pruned regularly, but you should always leave a few centimeters of the green shoots for needle wood. If you cut deeper, you reach the area that has already set the growth, so you cut a hole in the hedge, which will never grow. It is best to prune the spruce hedge after the second shoot, which occurs in the fall (the first sprouting is in spring). So you only have to cut once a year, after this second shoot the spruce does not grow much.