The Content Of The Article:
- Understanding Mushrooming
- Green tuber mushroom (Amanita phalloides)
- Poison thumping (Galerina marginata)
- Cone-headed Knollenblattpilz (Amanita Virosa)
- Orangefuchsiger Raukopf (Cortinarius Orellanus)
- Spitzbuckelter Raukopf (Cortinarius Rubellus)
Toxic mushrooms can quickly turn a delicious dish like homemade bread dumpling with mushroom sauce into a culinary nightmare. With luck, the toxins are so flavorful that they make the food undrinkable and all the alarm bells are already ringing at the first bite. With a bit of luck, the pleasure ends up with severe stomach cramps, organ failure in the hospital or even deadly. We would like to introduce you to the five most poisonous mushrooms that can be found in our forests.
If you want to get involved in collecting mushrooms, you should not just blindfold and collect what you just find. A certain expertise and the necessary equipment to transport the tasty prey safely home are essential. Definitely recommended are textbooks in which the mushrooms are described in detail and illustrated. If you have the opportunity, you should also take a guided course. Here you not only learn which mushrooms are native to you, but you can also take them directly into your own hands, which facilitates a later recognition.
Equipped with basket, knife, a fine brush or a brush for cleaning - and you can start with the mushroom search
There are a few things to keep in mind when collecting mushrooms. Basically you should never forget the tick protection. To collect yourself, it is best to use an open basket in which to place a kitchen towel. So the mushrooms get no pressure points and stay cool. It is not recommended to use plastic bags, as without fresh air supply the protein decomposition accelerates, the mushrooms spoil faster and you may incur completely unnecessary food poisoning. A sharp pocket knife for cutting is also a good companion. When you arrive in the kitchen you should not wash the mushrooms, just remove the dirt with a kitchen towel or a brush. Mushrooms absorb water like a sponge, which has a negative effect on later preparation.
But now to our toadstools:
Green tuber mushroom (Amanita phalloides)
The green toadstool belonging to the family of the Knollenblätterpilze is beside the toadstool probably the most well-known poisonous mushroom in the German-speaking area. The hat of the mushroom has a greenish color in different shades. In the hat center, the color is often intense olive and is brighter towards the edge. On top of the hat, the fungus has long white lamellae, which turn yellowish green as they age. At the maximum of 15 centimeters long and cylindrically growing stalk is a slight zigzag band can be seen, which disappears to the hat under a fine cuff. At the base of the stalk is the eponymous bulbous thickening from which the young fungus grows out. The smell is sweet with young mushrooms and goes in the direction of honey. With older mushrooms the smell becomes rather unpleasant. The green tuberous toadstool contains poisonous amatoxins and phallotoxins which, even in small amounts, can lead to severe abdominal cramps, vomiting, cardiovascular failure, muscle cramps, heart failure, bloody diarrhea and liver decomposition. Immediate hospital admission is essential here - the latency period for the toxins to work in the body is 4 to 24 hours.
Attention: The young tuberous mushrooms are easily confused with young bovists, as they do not yet show the characteristic green hat color.
Occurrence: From July to November you can find the green tuber-fungus, especially in sparse deciduous forests under oaks - rarely he grows under hornbeam and linden.
At its green hat color and the "tuber" on the stem base of the green tuberous mushroom is clearly visible
Poison thumping (Galerina marginata)
The Gifthäubling (Galerina marginata), or also Nadeholzhäubling, comes from the family of the Träuschlingsverwandten. The small mushrooms, which are up to eight centimeters tall, usually appear in small groups, but can also stand alone on their own. The hat color is honey brown, light brown at the edge of the hat. On the hat base are lamellae with a wide distance, which are also light brown colored. The stem looks dainty compared to the hat diameter (up to seven centimeters), is hazelnut-colored and silvery over-fibered. At the base, it is often intensely matted white-silvery. The smell is repulsive musty and does not invite to take away. It contains equally deadly Phallo- and Amatoxine as the Knollenblätterpilz.
Occurrence: The poison ivy is widespread. He shows up with his fruit bodies from August to October and always thrives in connection with deadwood.
He is nice to see, the poison ivy, but if he is eaten, he is deadly even in small quantities
Cone-headed Knollenblattpilz (Amanita Virosa)
The Kegelhütige Knollenblätterpilz belongs likewise to the family of the Knollenblätterpilze and is no less dangerous. The hat reaches a diameter of up to 15 centimeters in large specimens, is colored white and darkens with old mushrooms in the direction of old white. As a young mushroom, the hat is still hemispherical, but turns later dish-shaped to release the spores. On the underside there are also white, finely flaked slats. The up to 15 centimeters long stem is white to dirty-white, fibrous and color "genattert", that is drawn unevenly. Towards the top, it disappears under the fine cuff skin, which reaches to the top of the hat. At the base of the stalk is also the eponymous tuber, out of which the young mushroom grows out. The smell is sweetish and somewhat reminiscent of radish. With age, he gets musty uncomfortable. The fungus also contains, among other things, the toxic amatoxins and phallotoxins.
Attention: The Cone-Hued Knollenblätterpilz has a mild, not unpleasant taste. However, it is strongly discouraged from tasting as even the smallest doses can lead to liver damage! In addition, the young mushrooms are similar to the young mushrooms and bovists. They are so easy to confuse!
Occurrence: From early summer to late autumn in coniferous or mixed forests. Mostly as spruce companion.
Especially when the Kegelhütige Knollenblätterpilz is still young, it is often confused with mushrooms
Orangefuchsiger Raukopf (Cortinarius Orellanus)
Belonging to the family of the Rauköpfe Oranffuchsige Raukopf has a deep brown, slightly hunched and finely scaly hat, which easily rises in old age. This leads to a likelihood of confusion with chanterelles! The diameter can be up to eight centimeters. On the underside of the hat are the typical for the Orangefuchsigen roughen cinnamon brown slats and intermediate blades. The cylindrical stem is rusty brown at the base and brighter towards the tip. He is velvety and does not like the tuberous mushrooms on a cuff or a ring. The smell goes towards radish. It contains poisonous orellanins and nephrotoxins that damage the kidneys and liver. The latency period until the toxins take effect is between 2 and 17 days.
Attention: The taste of the Orangefuchsigen roughneck is mild and is therefore not negative among several mushrooms. Older specimens resemble chanterelles. The latency is long, which is why the reason for the complaints is often not recognized immediately!
Occurrence: From summer to late autumn in deciduous forests on beech and oak. Especially dangerous is that he likes to appear between trumpet chanterelles, which he resembles very much in old age.
The Orangefuchsige Raukopf can be confused with the chanterelle, but is deadly when consumed!
Spitzbuckelter Raukopf (Cortinarius Rubellus)
The Spitzgebuckelte Raukopf looks very similar to the Orangefuchsigen Raukopf. His hat is a bit smaller (diameter to about 7 centimeters), orange-red and rises in old age, with the edges tear frequently. Under the hat are the cinnamon brown slats and intermediate slats. Its stem is russet brown, thickens in the base and slims towards the tip. He also has no cuff or ring zone and is slightly velvety. The smell is radish-like. The toxins are Orellanine and Nephrotoxine.
Attention: The mild taste is not noticeable among other mushrooms!
Occurrence: From August to October on moist and swampy soils with mosses in coniferous forests. Very often it grows under spruce and fir.
Luckily there is hardly a likelihood of confusion when it comes to the pointed-humped roach, because even its consumption is lethal in small quantities