Dwarf fruit - that's what Aprikose, Pflaume & Co

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Dwarf fruit - that's what Aprikose, Pflaume & Co: dwarf

As with the large fruit trees, dwarf tree fruit trees bloom abundantly and bear more fruit when cut regularly. This is especially important if hobby gardeners despite little space yet do not want to forego fresh fruit directly from the tree.

Dwarf fruit trees definition

A dwarf fruit tree is a miniature plant that differs from the conventional fruit tree due to its much smaller size. The low growth is either caused by a special refinement or it comes about through a genetic defect. As a rule, they reach a height between one meter and 1.25 meters with a correspondingly narrower width than the large specimens. The dwarf fruit has the same size as "real" fruit trees. Due to the smaller dimensions of the dwarf plants, however, the growth rate of the fruit is significantly lower. It is therefore all the more important that the fruit growth is stimulated by cutting in order to achieve maximum harvest results.

Dwarf fruit trees

be cut almost all dwarf fruit trees - apricot and peach trees, plum trees on the way to fig and cherry trees. However, the necessary cutting is limited to the trees. Anyone with dwarf fruit bushes or specimens cultured with short half-tribe in tubs, should be limited to the topiary cutting. All other dwarf fruit trees are to be cut regularly according to instructions.

Best time

Sour cherry - Prunus cerasus

With a few exceptions, small fruit trees generally get their first cut in spring. Usually this should be done in April or May. The winter was relatively warm, must be expected with an early start of growth. The cutting is necessarily before and accordingly earlier than normal perform. If cut too late, there is a risk that the fruit tree will not be abundant in the year and produce only a few fruits. Most fruit trees in miniature optics can also be cut in late autumn late October / early November. Here it must be ensured that no frost is imminent.
Exceptions with other cutting times
  • Sweet cherries: in the summer after the cherry harvest
  • Apple and pear trees: late summer or early autumn
  • Peach trees: only in spring

cut reasons

Promoting the harvest
As dwarf fruit trees can produce far fewer fruits than their large "siblings", the fruit formation should be promoted as optimally as possible. This is possible through an annual cutting. By shortening the shoots the fruit formation is stimulated. By lightening, more air and light also come to hidden branches. The cutting of old, dried branches does not unnecessarily consume the plant nutrients and can use them for fruiting. In addition, the shoots are strengthened in growth, resulting in a better fruit quality.
Protection against fungal diseases
If the crown and the inner branches become too compact, moisture will be preserved for a long time because neither air nor sun can help to dry off. This can quickly form a fungus. Depending on the type of mushroom, the flowering leaves, fewer fruits are formed and the quality of these leaves much to be desired. In many cases, a fungal attack can also lead to the death of the plant. As a preventative measure, the shortening of the crown as well as the clearing in the inner area of ÔÇőÔÇőthe branches help here.
Avoid trouble with the neighbor
If the dwarf fruit tree in the garden bed is out of shape, fruit-covered branches can quickly protrude over the fence into the neighbor's plot. Annoying, if this then claims the mostly minor fruit for himself or complains in the fall over deciduous foliage on his property. Here again to avoid: in the spring always watching that distance between dwarf fruit trees and neighboring properties there is sufficient and, if necessary, shorten branches.
Keep shape
Many dwarf fruit trees are offered in column form or as half stems. In order to maintain their decorative shape for years, regular cutting is indispensable. If no shape cut were made, the dwarf trees often lose their shape already in the second year completely, while in the first year they appear "only" unkempt. Anyone who deliberately wants to make his dwarf fruit tree out of shape must reckon with a decline in flowers and fruits.
More stable strains

Apple - malus

Often the small fruit trees show thin trunks. To pull up thicker logs, there is a trick: just cut the wood / bark on the trunk slightly. For this purpose, approximately four to five centimeters long cracks are drawn with a sharp knife in an oblique or parallel line to the trunk. The cut should reach deep into the green.In this way, although a wound is created, but this stimulates the growth substances, which then provide primarily the trunk and thus create more trunk circumference.
Thicker shoots
On thin shoots fruit can usually not ripen until the end, because it is too heavy for the thin branches and this break off / kink many times. Thin shoots become thicker by not being cut. They get their circumference through the upper bud tips. From there, the thickness is formed down. Cut off these, the shoot remains thin. If you do not cut it, you need to exercise some patience until the thickness increases. If fruit is ripening, it is advisable to remove it in good time before the thin branch breaks. For cherries or similar light fruit, this may not be a problem, but lemons, apples or pears usually can not support a thin shoot.
Less, but better fruit
To improve the quality of the fruit, a so-called fruit thinning should be done. This is recommended if too much fruit has to share the place. In this way they also divide up the incoming nutrients and do not develop optimally. By separating the fruits is meant the slimming of some fruits, so that the remaining ones are supplied with more nutrients and mature better. A fruit thinning is usually carried out at the latest about four weeks before reaching the harvesting grade.

Cut dwarf fruit

For the health and lush growth, the normal rejuvenation cut is required, which should be done every year. The basis for the optimal cut are some basic rules, followed by the cutting technique and cutting lengths.
basic rule
  • Branches / shoots should not cross each other or run parallel
  • They should not grow inwards, steeply up or down
  • Branches always show off the trunk
  • Leave side branches for more flowering
cutting technique
  • Fresh shoots to a maximum of one or two buds cut
  • It is basically cut directly over a remaining bud
  • Separate old and dried branches on the trunk
  • Cut the diseased plant parts at least to the healthy area
root pruning

Plum - Prunus domestica

A rooting should be done when a dwarf fruit tree is cultivated or repotted to optimally fit the bucket size. In this case, the roots have at least three to five inches of space to the pot wall. If this is not the case, cut the roots. It should be noted that a root incision always affects the crown design. This means that you cut off thick, strong roots, the branches / shoots grow thin and can show themselves more delicate in their structure.

Mistakes to avoid

To cut too early or too late
Whether it is frosty temperatures immediately after cutting, in autumn or spring crops, your dwarf fruit tree is threatened with signs of frostbite. Always keep an eye on the weather forecast if you want to cut your copy.
water bullets
As water projectiles steeply upward shoots are called. They are often relatively thick. Some believe that with these shoots they can give dwarf fruit trees more stability and leaf density. The opposite is the case, as water projectiles condense the inner branches, less light enters, leaf growth decreases and light spots increase. In addition, aquatic bullets are more susceptible to fungal diseases. For these reasons, water projectiles should always be removed.
TIP: When you tear out water shells, no new specimens are formed as quickly as they would be if you cut them off.
summer cuts
Dwarf fruits, which are pruned in the summer after harvest, should not be pruned too early. When winter and spring are warmer, fruit maturity can be faster than normal. Therefore, the cut should not be done sooner, as this may in some cases lead to renewed expulsion. By the start of winter / frost, the branches would not be robust enough to survive the cold season unscathed. For this reason, summer cuts are generally advised in August.
Minor cutting
Avoid too "delicate" cutting. For dwarf fruit trees: more is better than too little. Cut off too little, this is equivalent to a missed annual cut. It will not have a positive effect on your plant. Growth will not be stimulated, nutrient supply will not be optimized and crop harvesting will decrease progressively. One third of the shoots should be cut off each year. Exceptions here are maximally budded branches at spring cutting.

to cut

Using inappropriate and / or blurred cutting tools will often result in injuries and bruising at the desired interfaces. Bruising reduces nutrient supply to the area above. In most cases, the affected branches die within a very short time.
If shoots are only scratched by blurred cutting tools, there is an open wound.As a rule, this can be tolerated by a healthy dwarf fruit tree, if it is one or two shoots. But if at the same time a pruning, the risk of a fungal infection increases. Injuries provide optimal conditions for fungi to enter the plant interior. Suitable cutting tools are, for example:
  • Rose Scissors
  • Small pruning shears
  • Pincers for thicker shoots / branches
  • Sharp knife with slight toothing for thinner shoots / twigs
If you discover a sapling at the foot of the trunk, you can use it for propagation. This should be done quickly, or at least quickly remove the sapling, because it negatively affects the growth of your dwarf tree and can reduce the flowering and fruiting.
Secateurs as an all-round tool
Garden and in particular rose scissors can be used in many ways in the garden or in the balcony planting. Quickly, the handle is done after the all-round tool and cut with this from plant to plant and from branch to branch. This can have fatal consequences not only for your dwarf fruit tree. Garden tools should always be re-disinfected after each treatment of a plant, because they can transmit diseases and pests, without you notice. Therefore: always apply only disinfected cutting tools to dwarf fruit trees.

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