The Content Of The Article:
- The mushroom breed
- Coffee grounds as a culture substrate
- Finished cultures for mushroom cultivation in the house
- Cultivation of mushrooms outdoors
- Mushroom cultivation on logs
- Further farming methods and storage
- Store mushrooms properly
Mushrooms are not plants in the traditional sense, as they can not photosynthesize due to the lack of chlorophyll. They live on dying organic substances and are therefore called saprophytes. Many mushroom groups also live in symbiosis, a kind of living community, with trees. A constant give and take determines this way of life and is called mycorrhiza. This group includes, for example, the porcini mushroom.
For collectors mushrooms have long been considered a delicacy; even as a remedy in China and Japan. The shiitake (Lentinus edodes), for example, has the so-called ergosterol (a vitamin D), which is often found in meat, but rarely in plants. Therefore, Shiitake is an important vitamin D supplier - especially for vegetarians. Other health-promoting properties that are said to be the shiitake: It should reduce cholesterol and preventively against the flu. All mushroom types have in common the richness of vitamins, trace elements and essential fatty acids.
The mushroom breed
Many types of mushrooms can easily be grown at home. Basically, own mushroom cultures on straw, wood or prefabricated substrate are possible. But at the beginning there is the mushroom brood - mushroom spores and / or the living mushroom culture, which is on a carrier material. Mushroom brood is available in various forms. In the grain brood, the mycelium, that is, the fungus netting, has its threads spun around and into grains or millet grains. The organic nutrients of the grains serve the mycelium as a food source. Grain spawn is very easy to mix under substrate and can be easily packed in cans or sachets. Körnerbrut is very popular for the professional mushroom culture and the vaccination of trunks.
The basis for the substrate brood is fermented, streaky straw, straw chopped or sawdust. This breed is great for spitting straw bales or soaked straw pellets. Instead, the mass is simply broken into pieces as big as a nut. As a rod or dowel brood called conventional beech wood dowels from the hardware store, but are completely traversed by the mushroom mycelium. The rod brood, for example, is ideal for picking logs or bales of straw.
A mushroom brood can be stored at temperatures between two and twelve degrees Celsius for two to twelve months before it has to be processed. The lower the temperature, the higher the durability. Before contact with the mushroom brood you should either wash your hands thoroughly or wear sterile disposable gloves, so that no bacteria or mold spores adhere to your hands. If one infects the brood with the adhering pests, the whole culture can die off.
After successful inoculation of the carrier material, a white fluff is visible on the surface (see photo). This is the sign that the mycelium has already completely overgrown the earth or the trunk. In the next stage appear small white nodules, so-called primordia - ie mushrooms in absolute miniature. But within a few days, the primordia mature to the right mushrooms. This process is called fructification (fruiting): The visible mushrooms, which can be eaten later, are actually only the fruiting bodies of the fungus. They carry the spores, over which the mushrooms sow.
Coffee grounds as a culture substrate
As a breeding ground, a special substrate based on straw, bark mulch or grain is usually used. Butterscakes, lime mushrooms or Pioppino can also be pulled on self-collected coffee grounds. The mushroom brood is first crumbled into millimeter-sized pieces and mixed with dried coffee powder. Then put everything into the seed pot, cover it and keep the substrate moist. After two to four weeks, when the white-gray fungus threads (mycelium) have completely grown through the substrate, take off the lid. The mushrooms appear in several spurts. After about six harvest waves, the nutrients contained in the coffee grounds are used up. Tip: As soon as the temperatures outside rise above ten degrees, you can take the mushroom culture out of the pot and sink it into the garden in a shady spot in the ground.
Pioppino, a particularly popular in Italy noble mushroom with velvety bonnet, can be pulled on coffee grounds
Finished cultures for mushroom cultivation in the house
Oyster mushrooms should always be grown as ready-made cultures according to the enclosed instructions. As a rule, an already fully grown substrate block is supplied. Without any help, the first harvest is often possible after just a few days. Reason: Transporting the block exposed shocks that stimulated fungal growth. Now it is important to store the substrate bales in a humid room or to bring about the correct humidity by means of a film. The block should always be kept moist.Put in a bowl, the excess water can be collected. Do not forget the air holes, because they additionally promote growth. The optimum temperature is 18 to 25 degrees.
Even professional breeders use substrates
If the mushroom culture feels well, the first fruiting bodies begin to form at the air holes. Depending on the type of mushroom, the bag is cut down to the substrate. Once the mushrooms have reached a size of eight to twelve centimeters, they can be carefully removed or cut off with a knife. If possible, without a stump remaining, otherwise rot bacteria can invade at this location. After the harvest follows a rest period of up to 20 days. After four to five harvesting phases, the substrate is exhausted and can be fed to organic waste or compost.
In rank and file are the white fruiting body of the most popular mushroom fungus. The mushroom substrate has grown superbly in the growing tray
Mushrooms are supplied as ready-mixed cultures as a mixed substrate. An additional bag contains the cover soil. The substrate is spread in a culture dish and covered with the supplied soil. Subsequently, the vessel is covered with a transparent plastic hood. If you do not have a growing bowl, you can also foil a small wooden box or any other container and place the substrate and cover soil on it. Now it is important to keep everything moist. The mushroom culture needs temperatures between 12 to 20 degrees. The wooden boxes are first best covered with a foil. Once the primordia show up, the cover must be removed, because now the mushrooms need fresh air to thrive. Harvesting is then carried out approximately every two weeks until the substrate has exhausted after about five months.
Start photo gallery
Mushrooms for Home Culture (12)
The hedgehog's barbed head, also called hedgehog barb, monkey mushroom or Pom-Pom-Blanc (Hericium erinaceus), is well suited to its own cultivation. In China and Japan, it is considered a medicinal mushroom, because it is rich in vitamins, trace elements and essential fatty acids.
Oyster mushroom, Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus): The hat has the shape of a shell and is up to 30 centimeters in diameter. Therefore, it is often referred to as shellfish or veal mushroom. His taste is exquisite. It is particularly suitable for culture on logs, bales of straw or on fertile substrate, but should not be exposed to the blazing sun and not stand in dark cellars.
The Rosenseitling (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus) beguiles by its intense color and its extraordinary taste, which reminds of salmon ham.
Mushrooms like the garden mushroom (Agaricus hortensis) are the most widely used mushrooms. The fruiting body has a white stem, a round hat with flat curved smooth surface and lamellae. The color of the lamellae varies from pink-brown to chocolate-brown. The aroma of garden mushrooms is mildly aromatic and intensifies the later the harvest takes place. Cultivation on fermented manure compost can take four to five harvest cycles. The mushroom can be grown on ready-to-use substrate indoors or outdoors on hillside beds with manure compost.
The Shiitake or Pasianipilz (Lentinus edodes) counts as the hedgehog spiked to the medicinal mushrooms in China and Japan. It is very tasty and has been cultivated for around 2000 years. Thus, it is the most cultivated edible mushroom after champignon. Its fruiting body is light to dark brown, round and it grows in larger clumps. At the beginning of his hats are curved bell-shaped down. Only with increasing age, the hat turns horizontally. The lamellae of the shiitake mushroom are white or yellowish in color. Otherwise stalk and hat are peered gray-brown. The Shiitake is particularly suitable for the wood culture on the balcony, since he needs no ground contact. But ready-made cultures for the house are problem-free and very productive.
Lemon mushroom, golden mushroom or lemon pea (Pleurotus cornucopiae) is called this bright yellow edible mushroom. He convinces with his taste reminiscent of chanterelles.
The Pioppino (Agrocye aegerita), also called Poplar mushroom, Poplarschüppling or Southern Schüppling attracts mushroom lovers because of its wonderful forest aroma in its spell.
The stone mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is also known as brown Egerling or brown mushroom. It is particularly popular because of its intense flavor, which is much stronger than that of its white relative - the mushroom. Presumably, the stone mushroom is the prototype of the culture mushroom, it is cultivated just like this.
The Tuscany mushroom (Pholiota nameko) is very suitable for the forest garden mushroom culture as well as for the vaccination of hardwoods. It is also called Goldkäppchen or Japanese Stockschwämmchen and is very aromatic in the taste - slightly nutty.
The velvet footrub (Flammulina velutibes), also known as velvet hood or winter mushroom, has a beautifully curved hat with uniform reddish brown color.Its lamellae are white or pale yellowish. He grows in clumps.
Judas ear, cloud ear, Chinese morel or elder sponge (Auricularia auricula-judae): Its fruiting body is ear-shaped and varies in color from dark gray to purple black. He has a diameter of about ten centimeters, the Fruchtfeisch is slightly gelatinous and about two millimeters thick. He is very popular in East Asian cuisine. The meat is rather tasteless.
The Schopftintling (Coprinus comatus) is an extraordinary mushroom: If he is still young, then his hat is closed and badly scaled. In the further course of its growth, the hat becomes ever bell-shaped and begins to literally liquefy from the edge. The black, ink-like liquid contains the spores and spreads them by simply dripping onto the ground.
Cultivation of mushrooms outdoors
Outdoors, there are various cultural methods, all of which have their advantages and disadvantages. Which is the right one depends above all on the particular type of mushroom.
High-pressure pressed straw bales are particularly well suited for oyster mushrooms and brown caps. The bales are soaked in clear water for two days in either a rain barrel or an old bath tub in April or May, then let them drain for a day. Then a rod or grain brood is spread: Drill holes in the bales of straw with a planting wood at a distance of 20 centimeters and insert the brood into it. After the straw bale has been completely spiked, it is covered with a foil. It increases the humidity and provides the mycelium with optimal growth conditions. After about five to six weeks between 20 to 25 degrees, the mycelium has completely penetrated the bale. Important for the coming weeks: The straw must always be kept moist, but not wet. With good care shows after three weeks a fine web. Another three weeks later, the first harvest is already taking place. Depending on the weather, up to six kilograms of mushrooms can be harvested with this method - always in cycles of three to four weeks. After that, the straw is exhausted as a food provider for the mycelium and migrates to the compost.
Instead of a straw bale, you can also use straw pellets. For this kind of the mushroom culture oyster mushroom, brown cap, Kräuterseitling, lime mushroom, Rosa Seitling and Schopftintling are very well suited. Moisten the straw pellets in the bucket with water to make them swell. Then you must mix in a grain or substrate brood, fill the mass in plastic bags and tie. Insert a few air holes to allow the culture to breathe. The whole is stored in a shady place at about 15 degrees. Just three weeks later the white mycelium shows up and the plastic foil can be removed. The culture needs a bright but not full sun for further growth.
Oyster mushrooms cultivated with straw
You can also cultivate oyster mushrooms and pink side-pieces in pots filled with straw pellets, for example on the terrace or on the balcony. Moisten the straw pellets in a jar of warm water and allow them to swell for three to four hours until the pellets fall apart. Then add water again until a porridge is formed. Spread a substrate brood evenly on the mash and mix. The mass is then filled into the pots, covered with foil and allowed to stand for about six to ten days, so that the mixture can ferment (ferment). Through the holes in the flowerpots, the water can drain well into the coasters. Make sure that the latter is emptied regularly to prevent waterlogging. After four to six weeks, the first of a total of three to four harvest cycles begins.
Mushroom cultivation on logs
The mushroom culture on wood is particularly productive, because you can harvest mushrooms with this culture method after a vaccination for up to seven years. Oyster and shiitake mushrooms are excellent for this method. They deprive the rotting wood of the necessary nutrients until the wood is completely leached. The wood should have been struck within a period of four weeks to five months before vaccination. In contrast to the shiitake, the oyster mushroom needs earth contact via the log, so the bottom end of the stem is buried after inoculation in a shady, snail-free space about 20 centimeters deep. Stick or grain brood is best for inoculation. Previously, the approximately one meter long stem or branch in a rain barrel or a tub must be well watered. Complain it most with concrete slabs so that it completely submerges.
Tree trunks are a fertile source for mushroom friends
There are different methods for the vaccination of logs. In the head vaccination, the stem is placed vertically and separated above a disc (about five to ten millimeters thick) with the saw. The resulting cut surface is covered with grain brood and the previously separated disc replaced and fixed in the middle with a nail. Subsequently, the interface is sealed laterally with an adhesive strip.So that it does not dissolve even when it is wet, it is also stuck with thumbtacks. To cut vaccination you cut with the tip of the chainsaw at a distance of 15 to 20 inches around several several five centimeters deep notches in the trunk. They are also filled with grain brood, briefly pressed and fixed as described above with tape and thumbtacks.
Borehole vaccination is also a very popular method. For this purpose, drill at intervals of about 20 centimeters in a spiral arrangement around the trunk about three centimeters deep holes in wooden dowel strength. Then press a rod brood into each hole and seal the hole with tape or candle wax. Instead, you can simply wrap the entire stem in plastic wrap. In a shady place at up to 25° C is softwood such. B. poplar or birch penetrated by the mycelium after about six months. Hardwood takes about ten to twelve months. If black or brown mold appears, the vaccine failed.
A particularly quick and easy method is the mushroom culture on plywood boards. Swell two poplar plywood panels in water and coat a plate with grain brood. Lay the second plate on top and fix them with wooden screws on all four corners. After a short storage time in a foil pouch, the plates are completely overgrown by the mycelium and there is no way for a quick harvest.
Further farming methods and storage
If you have a small forest property or a shady woody edge with humus rich soil, you can cultivate your mushrooms directly in the soil. This method is suitable for oyster mushroom, brown cappuccino, herb nibble, stick sponge and Tuscan mushroom. Let straw pellets swell with warm water, as in the pot culture. Then lift a 50 x 50 centimeter and 15 centimeter deep hole at the designated location in the garden and add half of the swollen mass. Then evenly distribute the brood (substrate, grain or rod brood) and pour in the other half of the straw pellet pulp. Gently squeeze the mixture and cover it with a two-finger layer of earth. After about four to twelve weeks (depending on the season and the weather), the first harvestable mushrooms appear.
Oyster mushrooms in the forest garden just before the harvest
Oyster, lime mushroom and shiitake are available as ready-made cultures for the outdoor. The cultivation of an outdoor ready-made culture works in a similar way as in the house. Most of the finished culture is delivered in a plastic bag. Just set it up according to the instructions in a shady place in the garden and always keep it moist. After just two to four weeks, the first harvest wave ensues followed by a rest period of up to four weeks. In total, up to five crop spurts are possible.
Store mushrooms properly
Fresh mushrooms can be stored in the fridge for four to five days. If they have become a little dry at this time, no problem: sprayed with a little lukewarm water, they are quickly rebellious and fresh. Mushroom surplus allows you to freeze or dry mushrooms. For freezing you can choose between the variant "in one piece" or "sliced".
Fresh from the oven: dried mushrooms
To dry, place the mushrooms sliced on a baking tray lined with baking paper. Preheat the oven to 50° C and allow the mushrooms to dry with the oven door open until any liquid has escaped. The same result can be achieved with a traditional dough dryer. For subsequent use, the mushrooms are simply soaked in a little water until they regain their typical consistency.
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Company Hawlik from Munich
Dipl.-Ing. Nicola Krämer
Organic mushroom cultivation and noble mushroom cultivation Breck GbR