The Content Of The Article:
- The finishing document is important
- The right framework for trellis trees
- This is how trellis fruit is built up
Apples and pears can easily be trained as trellises with horizontal fruit branches. Peaches, apricots and sour cherries, on the other hand, are only suitable for a loose, fan-shaped crown structure. With a strict formation, as is usual with pome fruit, the trees are quickly forgiving.
The finishing document is important
For small trellises, it is best to choose apple varieties and pear varieties on weakly growing processing documents. Apples and pears on moderately strong growing surfaces conquer even higher scaffolding. Make sure that the trees have the shortest possible trunk, so that the first branch level of the later trellis tree is not too high. In the nursery such plants are usually offered under the name Busch or Fußstamm.
On a support structure made of posts and horizontal tension wires, you can raise an apple tree as a freestanding trellis tree. If you place several trellises next to each other, a fruit hedge is created
The right framework for trellis trees
As attachment for the shoots are usually horizontally tensioned, galvanized or plastic-coated steel wires. If you want to invest a little more money, you can also use stainless steel ropes or a wooden trellis. Make sure that the wires and wooden strips are slightly away from the wall of the house so that the shoots and leaves are well ventilated from all sides. Of course, trellis trees can of course also be free, but a warm, south-facing wall of the house increases the yield and quality of the fruit, especially in heat-loving pears.
This is how trellis fruit is built up
Trellis bulbs take up little space and are extremely productive at the right location
The aim of the so-called educational cut, which begins with the planting, is the structure of the Leitäste and fruit shoots. On the other hand, in the later maintenance cut, the aim is to achieve a balance between fruit and lead shoots and to regularly remove all outdated twigs. The planting is done once in the spring, before the new budding. At the beginning of July, all lateral shoots are shortened to four to six leaves, truncate the mid-range drive and remove competitive drives. Only when pruning in the following spring, the new Leittriebe be fixed horizontally. Once the trellis is set up, the annual care cut ensures regular yields in spring and summer.
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Cut trimming fruit properly
Buy a tree with the shortest possible trunk and attach two strong side branches to the lower tension wire after planting. For fastening is best called so-called PVC hose band. It is elastic and does not stiffen the shoots. Cut the tips of the branches on one bud downwards. The remaining side shoots are cut back on short stubs, the tip of the vertical main drive, also called leader, is also slightly shortened
Educational cut in the summer
In summertime choose two new, strong shoots as lateral leading drives for the second branch floor at a suitable height. They are first attached to bamboo poles, which are at an angle of about 50 to 60 degrees obliquely upwards, and brought in the summer, piece by piece in a horizontal position. This is exactly how you proceed with the tips of the lower Leitriebe. By initially oblique branch position, the growth of length of the shoots is promoted. All new shoots that grow steeply up the stem and compete with the main shoot are cut off. All other weaker Neutriebe you should prune on four to six leaves
In the spring after planting, the trellis tree already has two branches. If necessary, remove all of the center drive's steep rivals and trim the tips of the second, younger branch floor to encourage sprouting and branching. In the course of the summer, fix the two end shoots of the leader again on slanted bamboo sticks. All shoots that grow out of the trunk between or above the branches of the branches are - like the fruit wood of the leaders themselves - shortened to three to four fruit buds. Fruit buds are thicker in apple and pear trees than normal leaf buds and often sit at the end of short shoots, the so-called fruit spits. By the way: From side shoots that drive out in summer above the second branch floor, you can of course also create another branch floor as described in Figure 2
The so-called conservation cut has the goal to preserve the crown structure and thus also the fertility of the trellis tree. To achieve this, if necessary, cut all new shoots along the trunk and the guide branches several times between June and August to around 15 to 20 centimeters.To prevent strong, vertically rising water shoots from becoming strong branches. Otherwise they would disrupt the basic structure of the trellis tree and thus the balanced distribution of water and nutrients. Also, remove all competition drives along the trunk
In the spring before budding is removed by the so-called spigot obsolete fruit wood. Although this reduces the amount of fruit buds and ultimately the yield, the remaining buds produce larger, better-quality fruits. The technique of the cone cut is relatively simple: Cut old and heavily branched fruitwood quirle along the branches of the branch on short stubs with about three to four buds