Field maple - plants and cutting


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Feldahorn

The summer green field maple (Acer Campestre) belongs to the family of the soap tree family (Sapindaceae) and the genus of maples. As green as it appears in summer, it shimmers in a yellow-orange-brown color in autumn. Because of its wood grain and the similar growth of the elder and the former use as a food tree, the field maple is also called "Maßholder". The field maple grows as a tree under favorable conditions up to 20 meters high and 15 meters wide and can be 200 years old. In its natural form, the field maple often grows multi-stemmed and carries a roundish to ovate crown. The strong heart-root system is generally insensitive. Young branches sometimes form cork strips and are very cut tolerant. The field maple flowers from May to June. The field maple is a popular place for birds to protect and nest.
There are different types and cultivars of the field maple:
  • Red field maple: five-lobed tapered leaves with a bronze shimmer, dark red in the shoot and golden yellow in the fall
  • Carnival: has white variegated (multi-colored) leaves that are pink in budding
  • Elsrijk (Cone Field Maple): compact conical treetop, tolerates dryness well, is less susceptible to mildew infestation
  • nanum: grows weak and spherical, is often offered as a refined log
  • Poste Lense: was discovered in Silesia in 1896, is often to be seen in old parks, young leaves are golden yellow and become increasingly greenness in summer
  • Zöschener maple: a garden hybrid of calabrian maple with field maple

Properly plant

The field maple in its various species is a very decorative tree in its natural way. If you want to use the tree in full on an open area to an impressive eye catcher or plant in shrubby form as a hedge, you should initially choose the optimal location. Under good environmental conditions the field maple grows very fast. The siting for the maple is very important, because he has the need to unfold unhindered. This also applies to species with low stature height. The best location is a sunny to shady location on customary Central European soil. Waterlogging endangers the tree. If you want to plant the field maple as a hedge, you need 2 to 3 plants per meter. The Maßholder grows 40 to 60 cm per year.
Optimal location summarized:
  • sunny to partially shaded location
  • unhindered growth opportunity
  • Soil optimal: nutritious, moist to dry, low humus content, generally normal soil
  • Soil unfavorable: waterlogging, acidic and clay soil
  • Climate: warm to cool, tolerates frost and heat, city climate, withstands wind
The field maple is a very robust, undemanding and frost-resistant tree. The best plant time is often dependent on the breed of the plants, for example, outdoor plants or container plants. The field maple is best planted in November. Young woodland forms fine roots even before the onset of winter. In the spring, the hedge plant starts right through. However, you can plant a well-rooted container plant even in late spring and summer. Loosen up the soil a bit and mix in some compost and horn shavings.

Maintain and cut

Field maple - Acer campestre

The field maple requires little care or fertilization. It grows, provided that the environmental conditions correspond to its nature, by itself at almost all locations. In autumn, a strong leaf fall is expected. In the spring, a mulching to prevent dehydration is recommended. A field maple, which is to be formed or acts as a hedge, must be cut regularly. As a hedge, it should be cut once or twice a year. It is important that the field maple is cut in the dormancy as the growth break. In this phase, the tree only slightly loses its sap and is thus not weakened. In no case cut in the spring!
The rest period begins in late summer. The best cutting time is autumn and late winter. It is recommended to cut off only one branch at first and to check whether the plant juice is low enough. After pruning, the larger intersections of the branches should be streaked with tree wax. The right cutter depends on the branch thickness. The selection ranges from secateurs to pruning shears to fretsaws.

Diseases, pests, what now?

After cutting and in general, field harts can also be attacked by diseases and pests. The field maple may be affected by diseases such as mildew, leaf spot, tree canker or Nectria galligena, Aphids or the Verticillium wilt fungus disease. In mildew, the fall leaves and infested shoots are removed immediately. In the garden powdery mildew fungi can be treated with net sulfur or mildew.
In the case of tree crayfish, a fungal attack in which the bark breaks up, infested branches and branches must be removed and burnt. If the strain is infested, a specialist should be called. If field harrows are due to tracheomycosis (brown coloring of the leaves), u.U. a vascular parasitic fungal disease. The should also be examined by a professional. Very often, field maples are attacked by gall mites, but these do not harm the tree and do not make fighting necessary.
For the tree harmful fungi are the Hallimasch, the Zunderschwamm, the spassiger Schüppling, Schmetterlingstramete, burnt Rauchporling or also the Brandkrustenpilz. In such cases, subject matter experts should be consulted. However, there are also many damages and fungi that do not hurt the field maple and also do not need to be treated. These include leaf spots, aphids or the frost-resistant fungus "velvet foot Rübling". Although the leafcutter bees cut circular pieces into the leaves of the field maple, they are beneficial insects that must not be fought over. The "stolen" pieces of leaf insert the bees into their breeding tubes.
As a free-standing tree and as a hedge the field maple is a very attractive tree plant. As a very robust and undemanding plant it can be planted almost everywhere and easily and later formed. Heavy tree infestations such as harmful fungi or parasites should be examined by a specialist.

Worth knowing soon

  • The field maple is also called Maßholder, while its scientific name Acer campestre is.
  • It is a deciduous tree species and belongs to the genus of maples. He can be between 150 and 200 years old.
  • As a rule, the field maple remains shrubby in size and only between 10 and 15 meters high under favorable conditions.
  • However, there are also individual cases that have reached a height of 20 to 25 meters, with the trunk circumference is a good one meter.
  • The bark of the field maple is brown to brown-gray and netted. Sometimes young branches form cork strips, which are very cut compatible.
  • The leaves are three- to five-lobed and have blunt lobes, while the bays between the lobes are always pointed.
  • The leaves are also opposite, i. that two leaves each grow opposite a branch and there are no stipules.
  • Furthermore, the leaves are dark green and on the underside more gray-green and finely hairy. They turn yellow and orange in October.
  • The tree has an intense heart root system, which is quite insensitive. However, field maple does not grow so well on heavily soured or clay soil.

Field maple - Acer campestre

The flowers of the field maple are in upright Doldentrauben together and are einhäusig, whereby a bloom always both sexes has, of which however only one correctly trained. The flowering period is in May and June, while the fruit ripening begins in September to October. The fruits of the field maple are gray-felted nuts with two horizontally projecting wings. The partial fruits are 2.5 - 3 cm long and 6 - 10 mm wide. If the tree is 15 to 20 years old, it has reached its flower maturity.
The occurrence of the field maple extends over the entire Mediterranean climatic area. Of all maple species, the field maple has the largest area of ​​distribution, so that the heat-loving tree is found almost everywhere in Europe, Asia Minor and Northwest Africa. From the plain it rises to the hill country, but is rarely found in the mountains. In the northern Alps it can be found up to 800 meters altitude. Due to the low altitude, little field maple is planted in the forest. He is more likely to be found in parks or gardens as a freestanding ornamental tree or as a hedge.

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