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The forest garden is not only a plantation of trees, but a composition of trees, perennials, ferns, ground cover and perhaps flowers, which only in their interaction form an ecological system and can condition each other in their existence favorable.
When designing a forest garden, the first step should be to assess the nature of the garden, the characteristics of the garden floor and whether there are already existing trees and bushes and other plants and plants that you would like to integrate into this forest garden.
Creating a forest garden - basics
The forest garden can be particularly good if there are already trees in the garden, which are already a few years old. These may be conifers, but also deciduous trees. If there are no trees in the garden, you have to know that it takes a few years to reach a certain size all the trees and plants as well as shrubs and shrubs that you want to plant. Only then does the garden look like a forest garden. Above all, the so-called groundcover must then be carefully selected, since they usually thrive only when there is already old tree roots.
For example, the planting of young trees in combination with ferns is difficult because ferns thrive only in soils that are already covered by perennial or old trees. Another disadvantage, if you have to plant the garden from scratch with trees to create a forest garden, is the missing shade. You have to wait several years for this shadow to be donated by the forest garden. If you do not want to give up big trees and the shade and you do not want to wait several years until the garden looks like a forest garden, you can already buy big trees. However, one has to know that the price range for purchasing a large tree can be between 100 to 1000 euros, or in some cases even higher.
The base - the right soil for a forest garden
The basis for the creation of the forest garden is the soil. This must be humorous. You have the opportunity to make the soil by enriching it with lots of bark humus, peat, plant soil and compost from leaves. Afterwards the soil should be covered with bark mulch, as this keeps the moisture in the soil and the soil remains humus. Bark mulch should be placed on the ground regularly, every three months. The bark mulch rots and forms new humus for the soil. This creates an optimal soil climate, as there is in the "right" forest. The laying out of old tree stumps and root system favors the formation of lichens and moss.
Which trees for the forest garden?
The mixture of deciduous trees and conifers is ideal for a forest garden. This looks natural and is a visual eye-catcher. If you decide on just one type of tree, it can happen that the forest garden looks like a tree and all naturalness is lost. The deciduous foliage of deciduous trees also guarantees the further formation of natural humus.
When selecting the trees you should know the respective properties of the selected tree search. Pines, for example, tend to offer a light forest garden. Red spruces and some deciduous tree species provide plenty of shade. There are also a few aspects to consider when it comes to the accompanying ground cover. Not every tree can be planted with any groundcover. For example, if you choose spruce, you can only transplant it with sturdy or robust ground cover, as the roots of the spruce are very shallow. Suitable ground cover for spruce trees are, for example, St. John's wort, ferns, woodruff and perennial plants, such as Bergenia.
Other ground cover, which can be combined with other tree species such as maple, fir or birch, are forest forget-me-not that also offers a blue eye-catcher, magnolia, hydrangea, outdoor camellias, purple bells, wild garlic, woodruff, monkshood, bluebells and double spur.
When transplanting the trees in the forest garden with ground cover you should not plant like two types of ground cover to a tree. You can basically use any deciduous tree or conifers to create a forest garden. For selection in tree nurseries there are usually elm species, such as the hanging elm, black pines, larch, robinia, birch species, such as the berry birch, maple species and firs to choose from.
The concept of creating a forest garden
Which tree species are ultimately planted for their own forest garden also depends on the concept that one should create for the forest garden. So you can opt for a forest with a clearing, a shade garden, a Japanese forest garden or a forest garden in combination with elements of a rock garden. Also a pond or a lake as well as paths and springs can be integrated into the concept for a forest garden, if this allows the place in the garden.