Fruit Tree Crop - Basics for cutting fruit trees

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Apple - Malus - blossom

Most fruit trees plant the flower buds for the next year already in early summer. As a result, shoot growth and flowering take place in parallel beginning in June. Here are the interests of fruit growers and trees apart. A rich harvest results from as many flowers as possible. Their education neglected the tree, as long as he still scents opportunities for further growth in length. According to the principles explained above, shallow-oriented shoots begin their growth in the same year and form flower buds. According to the basics in the fruit tree section this rule of thumb:
  • Fruit trees with flat standing branches come into the yield phase faster
The round of practice-relevant rules is rounded off by the law of leaf mass. The more leaf masses a branch with all its branches carries, the stronger the annual increase. This criterion makes it easier for you to decide on the extent of an interim measure, if within the crown an imbalance between individual lots is to be regulated.

Overview of cut dates

Choosing the best time for fruit tree selection depends on a variety of criteria. These include the type of fruit, the age, the form of education and the weather. The following overview gives practical cut-dates for the pruning of fruit trees in the home garden:
  • January to March: pome and stone fruit, such as apple, pear, plum, plum
  • June to August: cherries and all spindle trees and bushes after harvest
  • Winter cut in frost-free weather not colder than - 4 degrees Celsius
  • Summer cut in overcast sky
  • Planting immediately after planting in autumn or spring
Please do not cut young pome fruit trees in the first five years of existence until the end of February / beginning of March. Until then, the young wood after a cut is still so prone to severe frost, that in the worst case, a total loss is to be feared.
Tip: Low growing fruit trees will be cut in November or December. A pruning in late autumn causes increased sprouting next spring. In order to reduce growth, an appointment in February / March or later has proven successful in the fruit tree section, when the sap flow has already begun.

Tools and Materials - Basic Equipment Tips

Fruit tree cutting - branch cut

Also do not leave stubs if you divert an older one to a younger one. In this case, place the scissors directly at the junction between both shoots. Cut the old branch at an angle without damaging the wood on the remaining branch or leaving a hook.

Cut big branches step by step

One of the mainstays of successful fruit tree cutting is the correct removal of large branches. Use the following cut technique to ensure that a thick branch does not break or the bark is damaged irreparably. How to do it right:
  • Set the saw at a distance of 30 cm from the planned cutting point
  • Saw the branch down to the middle from below
  • At a distance of 10 cm saw the branch from above until it breaks
  • Cut or saw the remaining stump on Astring
When removing the last piece of wood on Astring, support the stub from below with your hand. Please make sure that the bark on the bead is not damaged.
Tip: In modern fruit tree cutting, wound closure agents are on the decline. Only in winter, the wound edges should be spread thinly with tree wax to protect the precious cambium wood under the bark from frost damage. Cuts after a summer cut are smoothed only with the hip and dusted with charcoal ash.

Four types of cuts - Guide for beginners

In his life a fruit tree goes through different phases, which are accompanied by adequate cutting measures. Immediately after planting, the first pruning takes place. The period of education extends over 3 years in low-growing fruit trees up to 7 years in powerful tribes. It follows the conservation cut, which does not take place annually on each fruit species. A rejuvenation cut comes into consideration as needed to get an aging fruit tree back on track.

plant section

Immediately following the planting, use the planting section to set the basic structure of your fruit tree. Select 3 to 4 leaders on the dominant center gear as the trunk. These should originate at various points in the trunk at an ideal 45 degree angle. All other branches cut off. The few carrying branches are sufficient to form a harmonious crown. A bad sprout of freshly planted fruit trees is often due to the fact that the gardener could not bring himself to remove the surplus impulses. Proceed as follows:
  • Cut back all the leaders
  • Shorten a strong branch by one third
  • Cut off a weaker Leitast by half
  • Cut back the same amount of supporting branches to the same extent
Cut back the central drive so far that its end bud is about 20 cm above the guide branches. To achieve the angle alignment, tie up the affected load or spread it with a string.

education section

Fruit tree cut basics

From the second year the cut care continues with the education of stable leaders and first fruit rods. As long as growth in height and width is to continue, these cutting measures are required:
  • Competitive drives to truncate the trunk near the ground
  • Remove stem shoots below the crown
  • Shorten the leading gears to the desired length to form a pyramidal crown
  • Do not cut short shoots on the supporting branches as fruit branches
  • Remove steep upward or inward branches on Astring
  • Frictional impulses outstrip the weaker ones
Please pay attention to a uniform height when cutting back the leading gears. The juice balance takes into account the law of top promotion. So that nutrients are evenly distributed to the carrying branches, no shoot may be in a higher position than its neighbors. However, as long as a leader grows weaker, the juice balance remains unnoticed during the education. To accelerate growth, cut back to weak trunk by half. Otherwise, the shoots can not lift their sweet load and break off. Only when all the leading drives have identical stability does the criterion of the juice balance become the focus.

preservation section

The education is complete when a fruit tree regularly bears fruit and has developed a uniform, richly branched pyramidal crown. To maintain earning power, cut your fruit trees more moderately. Most fruits form on apple and pear trees now on the 20 cm long short shoots and the sprouting 5 cm short fruit skewers. Thoroughly illuminate the crown every winter. The extent to which you reduce the average drive is subject to your individual decision. Optionally educate a second or third set of leaders. Experience shows that the quality of the fruit suffers from this. In addition, the harvest becomes a dangerous climb.
Important measures around the conservation cut is the elimination of steeply upward shoots, as they claim all the nutrients for themselves. Wild shoots from the pad tear off. Every instinct that competes with the tribe is consistently and completely cut off. During the full harvest phase, make a cutback on the lead boxes should the juice balance be maintained. If you shorten side shoots, they are always subordinated to their main branch in their length. It is important to note that you promote horizontal branches in a targeted way because flowers and fruits form here.

rejuvenation pruning

If a fruit tree noticeably decreases in yield or produces noticeably smaller fruits, correct the problem with a rejuvenation cut. With the exception of cherry trees, this cut will ideally take place during the winter saffron. This approach has proven itself in private fruit growing:
  • Pick out the trunk with its 3 to 4 leadscrews
  • Cut off all other branches, rivals, and cut off fruit tricks on Astring
  • Cut back the feathers by a third or half
  • Water shots and wild shoots auslichten

Fruit tree Auslichtungsschnitt Rejuvenation cut

If no buds are recognizable on a completely old-fashioned fruit tree, just cut at any point. The invisible, sleeping eyes are brought to life in this case and expire. As a further reaction to a rejuvenation cut, you will be confronted with numerous water slides during the first and second consecutive years. Remove the steep drives continuously. From the third year, the fruit tree section then flows back into the well-tried conservation cut.
Tip: In every water lap there is the potential for fruit drive. After a rejuvenation cut, do you lack vital branch material to build a new crown while numerous water squatters sprout? Then select the most vital descending drive and tie it successively in a horizontal growth direction.

Special case spindle trees

If there is a shortage of space in the home garden, the cultivation of fruit in the form of spindle trees and shrubs is a good option. Specifically, this is a refinement of apples, cherries or pears on a low-growing base. The result is slender fruit trees with a maximum height of 250 cm. At 300 cm, the recommended planting distance is less than half of the required distances for half and tall trees. Due to a conditional stability, spindle trees are permanently dependent on a support pile. Advantages of this refinement variant are the low space requirements and an early start of the yield phase after 2 to 3 years.
The close socialization of spindle fruit requires a rethinking when it comes to cutting.Here, the summer cut for all types of fruit has prevailed in private and commercial cultivation. What is already obligatory for cherries, applies to spindle bushes for apples, pears and plums. The reason for the date change is primarily the regulation of height and extent. Furthermore, the shading of the fruit is prevented by the dense foliage dress. Apples, cherries, pears and plums can not ripen properly when shielded from the foliage. Please cut your spindle trees like this:
  • Sweet cherries: cutting back in late summer, clearing out, tearing off water headers and trunk drives
  • Sour cherries: shorten older, worn out shoots to a one-year branching and clearing
  • Plums, plums: cut back only 3 years and older shoots until a two-year branching
  • Peaches, apricots: shorten after harvest by up to two thirds and fry thoroughly
Apples and pears get as spindle trees a vigorous summer cut in August. Remove all long shoots with more than 50 cm or shorten them so far that the ripening fruits are no longer shaded. Inward or downward branches are removed on Astring. In order to keep the resulting fresh shoots within limits, please allow a third of the branches to stand each year.

Cherry tree spindle

In contrast to apples and pears, prunes and plums are cut back even in summer. Since these stone fruits start to grow on the two- and three-year old wood, a stronger pruning could remove valuable bud plants. In contrast, peaches and apricots produce fruit on annual wood, so that they can be cut and shaped in shape just like apples and birches as spindles in summer immediately after harvesting.
If you know the basics, the knowledgeable fruit tree cut will not cause you any headaches anymore. Take into account the laws of growth, cut and cut technique, you will be rewarded with a richly-laden fruit tree and fruits in premium quality. Always keep in mind that every cut in your fruit trees triggers an adequate backlash. Which is the, determine yourself in the context of the concrete design with scissors and saw. You can easily correct one or the other beginner mistakes by following the instructions in this basic course.

Video Board: How to Prune Fruit Trees The Right Way Every Time.

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