The Content Of The Article:
- Cut underlay and scoop
- Copulation cut and fixation of the finishing partner
- The right cutting technique
Any hobby gardener can refine fruit trees himself with a little practice. The simplest method is the so-called copulation. For this you cut from your apple tree or cherry tree from a healthy, annual shoot and cut from the middle area of about a pencil-strong, so-called Edelreis, It should be at least finger-long and have four buds. As a so-called treatment base serves as equal as possible apple or cherry seedling. It forms after the successful growth of refinement, the root of the new fruit tree, while the stem and crown of the precious rice arise.
In order for the processing to be successful, one essential principle must be observed: As a rule, only fine grape varieties can be processed on the basis of the same plant species, for example one apple variety on an apple seedling. In some cases, however, a connection between closely related woody plants is possible - for example, pears are usually refined on quince rootstocks and quince varieties in turn also grow on seedlings of hawthorn.
Cut underlay and scoop
Obtaining the base and the precious rice: Shorten the seedling (1) in the desired height. Matching this will cut a scoop of equal strength (2)
For the refinement through copulation you need young, at least strong pencil-strong documents and as equal as possible annual shoots of the noble variety that you want to multiply. Refined is in winter as well as in early spring. First, shorten the base to the desired height (Fig. 1). For example, if you want to pull a high stem, the pad is capped at the crown height. The section of the Edelreiser (picture 2) takes place during the dormancy (December to January). If refining is to take place later, the rice must be stored frost-free and cool.
Copulation cut and fixation of the finishing partner
The copulation cut is carried out at the upper end of the pad and at the lower end of the circlet (3). The two finishing partners are now put on each other and then fixed with Bast (4)
Now make a three to six centimeter long, oblique and flat cut across the base of one eye (Fig. 3). The scion with three to four eyes is also cut to size (picture 3). The two cut surfaces of Edelreis and Unterlage should match as closely as possible, so that later both parts can grow together well. The so-called pull eyes on the back of the cut surfaces promote the growth of both refining partners.
Now put the rice on the base. Attention: The cut surfaces must not be touched with your fingers. Now the refining site is fixed with bast and finally with tree wax (picture 4). Also coat the top of the scoop. Then you can plant the grafted tree in a sheltered place. If the noble rice drives out in the spring, the refinement was successful.
The right cutting technique
For the copulation cut, it takes a little skill and practice: Hold the scion in the left hand horizontally at belly height tight to the body. The refining knife in the right hand, put the whole blade parallel to the rice and pull the cut in a train horizontally to the body. Tip: Practice these cuts best on willow rods before refining.
Tip: Ornamented apples and ornamental cherries can now also be refined by copulation in winter.