The Content Of The Article:
- Appearance and growth
- Location and ground
- To cut
- Picture gallery: New and old varieties
- Diseases and pests
Fuchsias are a species-rich genus. Over 100 wild species and varieties are known today. Most come from the mountain forests of Central and South America, few species occur in Tahiti and New Zealand. The fuchsia is known since 1696 as a genus of plants. Frenchman Charles Plumier discovered the first species on his journey to Santo Domingo, today's Dominican Republic. He named it after the botanist Leonhart Fuchs. In the 19th century, fuchsias became coveted ornamental plants in Europe. The breeders also took on the fuchsia.
Appearance and growth
The different Fuchsienarten differ very much in their appearance. So there are low-growing species such as Fuchsia procumbens, which are often used in rockeries, or even fuchsias species such as Fuchsia excorticata, which grow into magnificent trees of almost 10 meters in height. Most fuchsia species grow as shrubs.
The fuchsia 'Blue Sarah' flowers from blue to purple
Fuchsias fascinate with graceful bell blossoms, which sit by the hundreds to the shrubs. They tolerate shade, are easy to multiply and hibernate - and these are just a few reasons why the flower ballerinas really fun. A decrease in flowering is not in sight, at least not in the fuchsia. While other summer flowers already say goodbye in August, their flower bells dance long in the summer breeze. Only when the first frosts threaten, the season of industrious Blühher comes to an end.
Location and ground
Fuchsias are not only suitable for half-shaded and shady areas, as previously said in simplistic terms. There are varieties that tolerate the sun very well, for example, the fuchsias (Triphylla hybrids). Basically, the sun compatibility depends on the environment (neighboring plants, humidity), on the supply of water and nutrients and on the genetic characteristics of the variety. Fuchsias that grow in pots or window boxes are best set up in a place with mild morning sun or late afternoon sun. Midday sun and congestion heat are problematic. Above all, avoid that the root ball heats up. Shadow vessels that can become warm.
Due to their overhanging growth, fuchsias are particularly suitable for traffic lights, pots and tubs
Planted fuchsias, contrary to popular belief, also tolerate a sunny spot. The plants then develop a stocky growth and bloom richer than in a shady place. The prerequisite is, however, that you shade the root area, keep it cool and sufficiently moist. Here, a light cover with bark mulch or a subplantation with evergreen ground covers such as three-leaved Waldsteinie, ivy, small periwinkle or thick-males helps. Incidentally, underplanted fuchsias are easier to care for and the dense winter-green foliage makes further winter protection unnecessary.
The Magellan Fuchsia (Fuchsia magellanica) is one of the frostiest Fuchsienarten. However, it only reaches dimensions as in this picture in very winter-mild regions
Fuchsias are suitable for use in small groups in the discounts and on the woody edge. You can also combine fuchsias with other perennials, but take into account that fuchsias sprout very late, suitable partners are, for example, early flowering plants such as columbine and garlic, forest shrubs and grasses.
It is best to give the plants water only as needed in the morning or in the evening. Check if the root ball has dried off a bit since the last watering. You should not add a moist root ball. In high temperatures and dry weather, it is also necessary to spray the plants regularly with water. If the humidity is too low, the buds will wither and the leaves will fall off prematurely.
Danger: At extreme temperatures, the fuchsias leave the leaves hanging to prevent evaporation, even when the root ball is moist. Now you must not water, the roots can not absorb the water. Once the heat subsides, the leaves straighten up again. If the root ball is dry, you can put the plants in a shady place and water with tempered water. Never pour cold water on a warmed root ball.
From March to August you should fertilize your fuchsias regularly. A liquid fertilizer that is slightly kalibetont and low in phosphorus (for example, N-P-K 16: 9: 22) has proven successful. But only fertilize the plants that are completely rooted in the pot. In addition, you should not over-dose the weekly fertilizer, it is best to divide the fertilizer inputs to two pouring operations. Important: Never fertilize on dry soil or in high heat.
Fuchsias need regular nutrients.Liquid fertilizers that work immediately can be added to the irrigation water every one to two weeks
Also, clean out the fuchsias at least once a week, that is, remove all the decayed, the fallen leaves, and especially the ovaries. Also, inspect conspicuous leaves for diseases and pests.
The fuchsia is one of the most popular balcony plants, which are unfortunately not hardy except for a few varieties. Those who repot the newly purchased or wintered fuchsias in the spring must be careful not to use too large vessels, otherwise the plants will not develop a stable root ball.
In general, more frequent repotting is better. In the new pot, it should be possible that you can gently press the fresh soil around the existing root ball with your fingers. Plant five to seven plants on one meter of balcony box, and place three plants in traffic lights from twenty centimeters across. For a dense, bushy plant structure break out the soft, not yet lignified shoot tips, because where the shoot tip is missing, develop two or more side shoots. This so-called spawning for a late onset of flowering, therefore, the best time for the spawning is the early spring.
The pruning is usually done in the fall. Only shoots that have grown in the same year are cut. In addition, dead branches and dried flowers and leaves should be removed.
Fuchsias must go to winter quarters before the first frost. You remove all flowers and immature, still soft shoots. For wintering is a 5 to 10 degrees cold cellar, which may also be dark, because the plants lose their foliage here. If fuchsias are warmer in winter, they keep their leaves and then need light.
Offspring of the favorite fuchsia can be used with cuttings themselves. This works not only in the spring but also very well in August. It cuts to shoot tips of 7 to 10 inches in length. The offshoots are cut above a pair of leaves. Remove the lower leaves and place in an earth-sand mixture. Shade and keep moist. Rooting is also possible in water: simply place the cut shoots in a glass of water. After two weeks, roots form.
Picture gallery: New and old varieties
Start photo gallery
New and old fuchsia varieties (8)
Free-range fuchsia 'Riccartonii' is a vigorously growing variety that was used more than 100 years ago in Germany. Her growth is sparse and rather taut upwards. Over time, it makes beautiful, large bushes. The single flowers are relatively large
'Annabel' is a British breed more than 30 years old, which is still very popular today. You can use them both in the balcony box, as high trunks and even in the bed. In the light shade, their flowers remain pure white, in the sun, they turn slightly pink and the foliage is darker
The hardy fuchsia 'Rose of Castile improve' is an old variety from Great Britain (1886). It has a stable habit and very intense colored flowers when they open fresh. She is very willing to flower
'Valerie' is growing upright. The simple flower has a purple crown and a white goblet
'Ännchen' is a German breeding from 1982. It grows upright, has a purple crown and a red chalice
'Madame Cornelissen' is a breeding of the Belgian fuchsia breeder Cornelissen from 1860, which has proven itself to this day as winter hardy fuchsia. It grows upright and bushy and likes to branch, so this strain is good for growing stems
Diseases and pests
In fact, fuchsias are quite insensitive to diseases and pests. However, care errors can lead to fungal diseases such as fuchsia rust, mildew or gray mold. In addition, pests such as aphids, whiteflies, red spiders or weevils may occur.