The Content Of The Article:
- The changes are greatest in the south and east
- Heat-loving species are spreading
- Hard times for rhododendron
Climate change does not come sometime, it's already started. Biologists have been observing changes in the flora of Central Europe for many years: heat-loving species are spreading, but plants that love cool become less abundant. A group of scientists, including employees of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, have simulated the further development with computer models. The result: by the year 2080, every fifth plant species in Germany could lose parts of its current area.
The changes are greatest in the south and east
According to the Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, as well as the lowland plain of Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony, particularly severe losses to the flora are threatened. In the low mountain regions, such as in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Thuringia and Saxony, immigrant plants could even slightly increase the number of species. This development also affects the garden plants.
The marsh marigold is one of the losers of climate change. It threatens to completely disappear in places in Germany
Prominent representative on the losing side is the marsh marigold (Caltha palustris). You meet her in wet meadows and ditches; Many garden friends have planted the pretty perennial on their garden pond. But if temperatures continue to rise as climate scientists predict, the marsh marigold will be rare: biologists fear severe decay. In the lowlands of Brandenburg, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, the species could even disappear completely locally. The marsh marigold will have to move further north and find its main habitat in Scandinavia.
Heat-loving species are spreading
The typical winner of climate change is walnut (Juglans regia). In Central Europe, you can find them both freely growing in nature and in gardens. Its original range is in the eastern Mediterranean and in Asia Minor, so it gets along well with hot, dry summers. In Germany, it has so far mainly found its way into the mild winegrowing regions, as it has reacted sensitively to late frost and winter cold and shunned rougher locations. But experts now also predict good growth conditions for the regions that were previously too cold, such as large areas in eastern Germany.
The walnut benefits from the warmer climate and is expected to spread in Central Europe
But not all heat-loving plants will benefit from climate change. In the future, the winters will be milder in the future, but in many regions they will also be more rainy (while less rain will fall during the summer months). Dry artists such as Steppenkerze (Eremurus), Mullein (Verbascum) or Blauraute (Perovskia) need floors where excess water can quickly seep away. If the water builds up, they risk falling victim to fungal diseases. On loamy soils, therefore, plants have the advantage that both can endure: long dry periods in summer as well as moisture in winter.
These include hardy species such as pine (Pinus), ginkgo, lilac (Syringa), rock pear (Amelanchier) and juniper (Juniperus). With their roots, roses also open up deep layers of soil, allowing them to fall back on reserves in times of drought. Unpretentious species such as the pike-rose (Rosa glauca) are therefore a good tip for hot times. In general, the prospects for roses are not bad, because in dry summers the risk of fungal diseases decreases. Robust onion flowers such as the garlic (Allium) or irises (Iris) survive well heat periods, as they store nutrients and water in the spring and can thus survive dry summer months.
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Winners and losers of climate change (9)
The steppe candle (Eremurus) copes well with hot, dry summers. However, it responds sensitively to waterlogging, so the beautiful perennial should only be planted in permeable and loose soils
In summer, the blue lurking or Perovskie (Perovskia) shows its beautiful flowers - even if only a little rain has fallen. However, it reacts sensitively to moisture and therefore needs permeable soils
The Juniper (Juniperus communis) is a true drought artist. The uncomplicated evergreen shrub defies even long periods of drought
The Mullein (Verbascum) loves dry and hot locations. Look for a sandy and well drained soil
Pines such as the native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are extremely robust and frugal. They thrive on sandy, dry soil as well as on wet sites
The local pike-rose (Rosa glauca) is a real insider tip. It is robust and not susceptible to disease. In June to July it blooms blue-red to purple
The popular hydrangeas, here the variety 'Annabelle' (Hydrangea arborescens), have problems with hot summers, because they need a slightly moist soil. Choose shady locations
Hard times for rhododendron
Also hydrangeas and rhododendrons will have to fight. The flowering shrubs need soils that are always slightly moist. Although you can pour more in hot summers, but in the face of dwindling water and rising water prices in the long run not recommended. In addition, droughts are likely to ban garden irrigation in many communities, as was frequently stated in the hot summer of 2003. The right location is therefore becoming increasingly important: If the region anyway low precipitation or dry the soil quickly, then you should better keep your fingers completely thirsty plants. If you plant rhododendrons and hydrangeas nevertheless, the place should definitely be sun-protected, for example on the north side of the house or in the shelter of larger trees.
Rhododendrons take care of drought. In regions with little rainfall you should not plant the beautiful bushes better. If it does, then the location should be shady and the ground covered with a thick layer of bark mulch