The Content Of The Article:
- Garlic and garlic clove
- Best time to plant garlic
- Best location for garlic
- Plant garlic
- Care of garlic
- Harvest and storage
- Garlic varieties
- Use garlic
Garlic is delicious and healthy, garlic is also delicious, but not in the toe in the fridge, which only makes it bitter. But you can plant garlic, first green and then harvest toes - this is super easy, and much care does not need the garlic.
Garlic and garlic cloveGarlic belongs to the order of the asparagus -like, to the family of the Amaryllisgewächse, to the subfamily of the Leuchgewächse and to the kind leeks (Allium). Although no amaryllis, the Allium sativum has to offer as beautiful flowers as some ornamental lilac. Knob-leek is better known than for the beautiful flowers (knob goes back to an Old High German word for "split", because of the "split" toes) as a spice, more and more people cook a lot with the delicious and healthy garlic cloves. These toes are the persistence organs of the perennial (leek) plant, besides the main toe, five to twenty secondary toes are formed, and sometimes also bulbs.
Best time to plant garlicThe toe that we squeeze in tzatziki, aioli or spaghetti sauce is at the same time what the next garlic grows from. These garlic cloves can be stuck in the soil during perennial and hardy garlic in spring or autumn. If you put a garlic in the garden just for ornamental purposes, even at some point in between, so "messed up" it does not necessarily make beautiful big toes. If you want to harvest, you should keep the rhythm, garlic first grows the so-called Rundling (the main toe) and begins only after some time with formation of the daughter onions (toes). In the spring garlic should be put very early (end of February), so that the harvest in the fall turns out to be reasonably abundant, otherwise there is only an enlarged Rundling or thin, isolated toes. Therefore, from September to early November are the best times for planting, then the Rundling grows into the winter enough in order to train in the next growing season many daughter onions (a decent garlic tuber). The winter cold is said to have a positive effect on the growth of the onion, it will be in the next summer (July to August) to a nice big tuber.
groundGarlic grows best in loose and nutrient-rich soil, a well mixed with humus mixed with sand garden soil z. B. Gladly you can enrich the soil with ripe compost already in the autumn before, freshly dug or freshly fertilized soils does not like garlic so much. For pot / flower box you can use such mixed with sand garden soil as a substrate, alternatively potting soil with sand. Here, the defense against waterlogging is particularly important to the permeable substrate should therefore drain (layer of gravel or stones) come down in pot.
Best location for garlicDepending on where you get your garlic (see below for garlic varieties), he needs a lot of sun or a lot of sun, especially in the first time of cultivation. Garlic likes to grow alongside, among, strawberries, cucumbers, raspberries, lilies, carrots, fruit trees, roses, turnips, tomatoes and tulips. Of those he also keeps away a number of pests (which hardly threaten him). Bad neighbors are beans, peas, cabbage and other nitrogen-producing legumes.
Plant garlicis simple:
- Stick the toe with tip upwards about 4 centimeters deep into the ground
- This works fast if you pre-drill holes with the planting wood
- At a distance of around (at least) 10 cm
- Garlic thrives in the bed and pot on the windowsill
- In pots you can also put germinating garlic cloves of Mediterranean varieties
- If your garlic variety forms bulbs (see below for garlic varieties), the similar (not so deep) are plugged
- They will need a season longer until they have developed magnificent tubers
Care of garlicUntil it grows, garlic should be kept evenly and regularly moist, after which you will not have much to do with garlic. He always needs a little bit of moisture in the ground, but he does not want to get wet, everything is normal. Garlic is hardy, but it does a blanket of straw / brushwood / mulch well. At the same time it protects him a bit from rain, too much rain is usually more harmful to garlic than frost. On a free-irrigated balcony, the garlic cultivation should be even better placed in winter on the rain-protected house wall.
fertilizerGarlic does not necessarily need fertilizer, in well-groomed nutrient-rich soil the Mittelzehrer comes first without over the winter. You can pamper him next spring: Researchers from the Zhang Yin Xiong Li Lu Guo Xisheng Fertilizer Institute and the Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Sorry, but in China, "a bit more" garlic is cultivated than ours and therefore more researched) studied the effect of fertilizers on the garlic harvest and found that garlic develops the highest levels of vitamin C and soluble sugars when fertilized with nitrogen and potassium 1: 1 + 1/2 phosphorus. For example, manure containing per kg almost 2 g of nitrogen, potassium and 0.8 g of phosphorus (flat-rate average, it depends on what the animals have eaten), per season about 2.5 kg per square meter. Synthetic fertilizers, even in this composition, you should save yourself better, if the guests at the grill party of your Tzatziki should be as enthusiastic as always.
Harvest and storage
If you have planted in the fall, you can reap from the next early summer. First, the garlic green, which tastes a bit like garlic with chive touch and in the odor after effects much less inconspicuous than the garlic clove itself. If your garlic variety forms flower stems, you can cut them off before forming bulb bulbs, then the tubers get bigger. You can also leave a few stems and plant the bulbs directly towards the end of the year. The toes are harvested when one third of the garlic foliage is withered. If you use the tubers fresh, the fumes will be gentler, the rest of the harvest you can braid into pigtails and hang to dry. From the harvest, you can also plant a few toes for the next season, which then bring further harvest.
Garlic varietiesAllium sativum gives it only as a crop, he came already in the breeding form from Central and South Asia to us, the wild type is considered extinct. There is this culture-garlic in two variants and many cultivars:
1. Allium sativum var. Sativum, the actual cultivated garlic that you usually buy in the trade. Its characteristics:
- It grows with low, fairly straight shanks with a rough edge
- The tuber has smaller toes on the inside than the outside, the numerous secondary bulbs grow oblong
- It does not form flower stems and thus no bulbs
- In international trade this breed selection is called "Softneck"
- China is the world's main exporting country, so the research quoted above
- It forms funny serpentine bent foliage, tubers with a few large roundish secondary bulbs and flower stems with breeding tubers, which ensure the harvest of the next year
- This variant is known in international trade as "Hardneck" (Stiffneck), in Germany as garlic or garlic snakes or (in gourmet restaurants) as Rocambole
- It grows well in northern areas, a great garlic for garden and windowsill
- In rare garden centers you will find it depending on the season in the pot or as a breeding tuber
Softnecks and Hardnecks have subtypes and cultivars. A presentation of the several hundred cultivars would go beyond the scope of the article, is (unfortunately) currently not necessary, as seedlings are sold anyway only nameless universal garlic or Rocambola. If you are interested in the maturity, size and storability quite different varieties, you might find in English Raritätengärtnereien, occasionally also on German weekly markets or specialized nurseries. Also in trade, there are rarely variety denominations, but white and maybe pink tubers from China, Argentina and Spain. They can put you in a pot, if they germinate, German winters survive these "heat children" usually not. Trying, of course, can not hurt, but rich harvest in the garden requires seedlings from the gardening trade, which is adapted to our climatic conditions.
Use garlicSo that the garlic enjoyment is really a pleasure, here is an important note on the processing:
- The unpleasant after-effects come from sulfur-containing compounds
- In garlic are only once precursors included, after injury to the cells (squeeze or crush with the back of the knife to porridge) forms the actual active ingredient allicin
- Upon heating the garlic, several other sulfur-containing compounds are formed
- They will later "smells" over breath and skin, but also do a lot of good:
- They have an antithrombotic effect, prevent arteriosclerosis and colon cancer, and generally have an antibacterial effect
- In addition, garlic contains selenium, with which most modern people are said to be poorly supplied
- Selenium has an antioxidant effect and binds heavy metals in the body
- In times when traces of metal in the human body are suspected of promoting / causing all sorts of diseases, it is a cause of daily garlic consumption...
- Here also shows again how much sense of impact traditional kitchen tools (such as garlic presses) work:
- One benefits most from the active ingredients when garlic is crushed
- In hot dishes, he should cook only briefly
- Sensitive people tolerate garlic better if the germ is removed from the center of the tuber (even if it is still white)
- Green germs make garlic bitter, which should be better planted
- According to a study by Ohio State University, milk neutralizes 50% of the sulfur compounds in the breath
- Other good antistink remedies: chlorophyll (eg in parsley) and ginger