Instructions for fruit tree refining

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If a fruit tree is to be refined, that usually has the reason, because it is to be propagated. This is not always about seeds or cuttings, so the refinement is a particularly chosen in nurseries and nurseries way.
Refinements are also carried out to increase the yield of fruit trees, in ornamentals this increases the willingness to flower. Some plants can only flourish by refining on unfavorable soil conditions.
Fruit tree refinement with Reisern
If fruit trees are to be refined, there are a few steps to note exactly. Of course, only one tree is selected whose advantages and advantages are known. First, a so-called Reiser must be cut. This is taken from the crown in the upper or in the southern part. It should be about the thickness of a pencil and already have well-formed eyes. Of course, Reiser must be healthy. A middle part with three to four eyes is used. Tip: Do not cut the Reiser below -4° C in winter.
Although you do not have to meet any surgical conditions, the interfaces should not be touched with your fingers. Even in summer Reiser can be cut, but then they must not be exposed to the sun, so as not to wither prematurely. The purpose of the Reiser is to transfer the benefits of the mother plant to the new plant. This is good fertility in most cases. After cutting, the wound surfaces are closed with wound wax, leaving only the bottom eye free to expel. The Reiser is connected with bast from top to bottom and thereby pressed against the pad.
This binding material is cut open vertically after a few weeks with a sharp knife. The right time can be recognized by the fact that it begins to constrict. It is not completely removed, but remains on the tree. As soon as the buds show small shoots, the finish can be described as successful.
Fruit tree refinement through copulation
When copulating the Edelreis is connected to an equally thick pad, it should be about finger thick. On both parts, an oblique cut of about 3 to 4 cm in length is performed, so that the bark fits on the bark. The cut surface should be at least three times the diameter of the traveler. In addition, both parts must show an eye over the cut surface. In this refinement of the precious rice must be cut shortly before and should come from the same year. The petioles of the precious rice remain preserved, they dry after a few weeks from. At the same time this is also the sign that the refinement has succeeded. Thereafter, side shoots and leaves of the pad should be removed.
In the copulation with so-called counter tongues is similar procedure. The incision is made 1 cm deep in the direction of the longitudinal axis and set at an angle. This creates a standing against each other gearing, which are pushed into each other.
Fruit tree refinement by Okulation
When fruit trees are planted, one eye of the scion is transferred to a less interesting surface. This causes the bud to grow into the new branch, forming a new shoot after a while. This then has the same characteristics as the rice, the base is cut off over the eye and cut back in the fall to 20-25 cm. The ocularization on the sleeping eye is done in the summer, at the latest until September. A not yet woody scion is freed from its bark at the refining. Again, a shoot is best taken from the crown, a water lap is not suitable. Also in this variant, the Reiser is taken shortly before and processed immediately. This type of processing is particularly suitable for these fruit trees:

  • pears
  • plums
  • peach
  • quince
  • apples
  • cherries
  • roses
For this purpose, the bark is T-shaped cut after the bark was easily peeled off. This allows them to unfold them and push the well-matured eye into the bark lobe. The protruding part of the bark of the Edelauges is cut flush with the T-bar and connected with raffia. The bark lobes should cover the cut surfaces of the Edelauges. Eventually, the entire area can be spread with wax, but the eye remains free.
If after about three weeks the Blattstielstumpf has fallen off, the Bast Association can be solved. If it has not fallen off, the refining must be repeated. If done simultaneously in two places, the chance of success naturally increases. With the Okulation on the driving eye mostly young fruit trees are refined directly above the ground. However, fragile, low-growth varieties such as wild cherries or apricots should be grafted at crown height.
The adhesion process
The refinement can also be seen as an intervention in nature, of course in a positive sense.But it is a complicated process when the sweet rice and underlay grow together. Two different plants should tolerate each other and continue to grow and thrive. They should carry fruits or flowers, which is a big expectation after all. It is not easy to carry out this project successfully and patience is required. Here are the individual steps again for a better overview:
  • oxidation of the injured cells leads to browning of the cut surfaces
  • after a few days, the formation of an insulating layer is completed
  • again after a few days, the pad begins cell division and the formation of the wound callus between the two processing parts, water and nutrients are replaced
  • Through a tight wound dressing, this process continues to increase
  • About 3 weeks later, the insulating layer is degraded again and metabolized
  • the first ground fabric is formed towards the bark of the precious rice
  • the scoop gets more water and starts cell division
  • Cambia and cork tissue grow together
  • the final transport routes for water and nutrients are formed in the wood part and in the bast
The adhesion of the two processing parts can take up to fifty days, in warm weather it can also go faster. In the case of the Okulation, this success is already visible after ten days.
Worth knowing about the fruit tree refinement shortly
  • Reiser
Before you can start refining a fruit tree, choose a tree that produces good yields. If the right tree is found, cut it on the south side of the upper crown area. For this purpose, only one year old shoots are considered. If the so-called Reiser are cut, they should be embedded in a pit with sand. To protect the Reiser from the frost, these can alternatively be stored in damp sand in the basement. It is important to ensure that the Reiser not be stored too dry, because too dry Reiser are no longer suitable for refining.
  • copulation
In the case of copulation, a copying cut is made at both refining partners. The cut takes place in an inclined position and should be done by pulling. Only when the cut is smooth and even, do both parts fit together. For this exact cut you should use a copying knife as it has a particularly sharp blade. If both parts fit together perfectly, they only need to be connected. For this special bast is available, which is coated only with a wax.
  • Okulation
In this method of fruit tree refinement, only one eye of the precious rice is used. This one puts in the pad. The eye is cut out of the rice with an eyecup knife. A sharp cut is also made on the base. The bark is released and the precious eye can be inserted into the opening. Once this step has been completed, the processing of the fruit tree with bast, foil dressing or with so-called quick-closing must be firmly closed. Thus, the eye is pressed close to the pad and preserved from dirt and dehydration. In addition, the solid closure promotes the adhesion process.

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