The Content Of The Article:
The subdivision according to the depleting properties of a plant, ie according to their nutrient consumption, does not refer to all nutrients that are present in the soil, but mainly to the nitrogen consumption. Those plants which have a low demand for nitrogen are called weak-casters because they extract little nitrogen from the garden soil. Such plants, which have a medium consumption, call themselves Mittelzehrer. Plants - here are mainly vegetables to call - with very high nitrogen requirements are the so-called starvation.
What needs to be taken into account with heavyweights?
When growing vegetables, it can easily happen that the soil is very exhausted after a short time. Especially if the same vegetables are always grown on a bed and if they are species with a very high nutrient requirement. This phenomenon is also called soil fatigue and causes that
- The yields decline, even though the plants are healthy
- the development of the plants is only very limited (miserable)
- a nutrient deficiency occurs
- Pests and diseases can spread
Nitrogen as a nutrient in the garden
Nitrogen is often referred to as the "engine of growth". Because nitrogen is the nutrient that most affects the growth of plants. The prerequisite is, of course, that the other necessary nutrients are available in sufficient quantities. Nitrogen is involved in building plant structure (in proteins) and chlorophyll. Therefore, plants that are well supplied with nitrogen appear greener. In addition, they grow faster and form more leaves and branches than poorly supplied plants. Heavy tasters in flowerbeds or vegetable gardens require relatively high amounts of nitrogen, which is why the soil must normally be fertilized or treated.
3. Cucurbitaceae - Curcubitaceae
In the cucurbitaceae it is easy to understand that the plants need high levels of nutrients in the soil. After all, the plants have to put tremendous power into building their big fruit within a very short time.
- Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
- Pumpkin (Cucurbita var.)
- Melons such as sugar melons (Cucumis melo) and watermelons (Citrullus lanatus)
- Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo subsp. Pepo convar giromontiina)
Beets are among the foxtail plants. The beetroot is not only related to the sugar beet, but also to the chard, which at first sight may not even be known to many gardeners.
- Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris)
- Beetroot (Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris)
- Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris)
- Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) - Compositae (Asteraceae)
- True spinach (Spinacia oleracea) - foxtail family (Amaranthaceae)
- Allium ampeloprasum - Alliaceae (Allioideae)
- Carrot (Daucus) - Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)
- New Zealander Spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides) - Midday Flower Family (Aizoaceae)
- Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) - Knotweed Family (Polygonaceae)
- Celery (Apium) - Umbelliferae (Aspiaceae)
- Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) - Asparagus family (Asparagaceae)
- Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) - Compositae (Asteraceae)
- Sweetcorn (Zea mays) - Sweet grass (Poaceae)
To the strong-consuming plants in the vegetable garden count also:
- fruit trees
- Flowers: chrysanthemums, geraniums
If you want to grow heavy vegetables in the vegetable patch, a green manure, compost or manure is used in the previous year. In the spring, a portion of ripe compost is added. This should be very feinkrümelig (best before seven). For starvation the following fertilizers are used:
Autumn (previous year): cow dung, horse manure, chicken manure (pre-composted), 2 shovels per m²
- alternatively compost (1-2 years matured) plus horn meal or horn chips (contain 14% nitrogen)
- fine, three-year compost in spring
Tip: Some gardeners also swear by repeated fertilization with nettle in the growing season.
Stable dung or compost?
A common misconception lies in the belief that compost can be used as an alternative to farmyard manure. The two fertilizers must not be completely equal, since
- Compost is a pure humus fertilizer
- only the ground up
- is no comparable nitrogen supplier to the stable manure
When and how much fertilize?
Organic fertilizers such as manure or compost must first release the contained nitrogen. They should be worked into the soil as early as autumn. And: Stallmist is not just crap. Because horse manure is actually made of contaminated straw, it contains much less nitrogen than peasant cow or pig manure. Mineral fertilizers are usually water-soluble. The nutrients are released very quickly and are available immediately. Of these fertilizers, a small portion should be applied several times at the beginning of the growth period, so that the plants are not over-supplied and the groundwater is unnecessarily burdened.
- Barn manure: about 2-3 kg of horse manure or 1 kg of pig manure per square meter
- Compost: 1-3 kg per square meter, autumn or spring
- Horn shavings or horn meal: according to instructions
- Mineral fertilizer: according to instructions (maximum 10-15 g per square meter)
The vegetables must also be sorted in the successor culture of the plant family! Plants of the same family should be planted again on the same bed at the earliest after three years (better after four to six). These include:
- Umbelliferae: fennel, dill, celery, carrots, celery, parsnip
- Ice plant family: New Zealand spinach
- Grasses: corn, rye
- Asteraceae: artichoke, chicory, endives, almost all kinds of lettuce
- Cruciferous vegetables: Radishes, radish, cabbage, mustard, horseradish, kohlrabi
- Cucurbitaceae: pumpkin, cucumber, melon, zucchini
- Lily family: leek, chives, garlic, onion
- Solanaceae: tomato, paprika, eggplant, potato
- Butterfly plant: peas, beans
The heavy eaters include many types of cabbage besides some fruit trees. Even vegetables that produce very large fruits in a very short time usually need a lot of nutrients. Cucumbers, pumpkins and melons belong to this group. The formation of underground, thick tubers such as radishes, beets and carrots need high nutrient concentrations in the soil. Also many well-known nightshade plants such as potatoes, tomatoes and peppers are among the heavyweights. The nutrients for starvation need especially nitrogen, which should be introduced into the soil in autumn through manure.