Hibiscus proliferate successfully

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If you want to multiply hibiscus, you have different methods to choose from. The hardy garden or shrub marshmallows (Hibiscus syriacus), which are offered in this country for the garden, are cultural forms. They must be propagated vegetatively, if varietal characteristics such as the flower color should be preserved. This succeeds most reliably by refinement, since cuttings under hobby garden conditions form only very bad roots. Seed cultivation is mainly interesting for breeding to create new varieties. In addition, can be used in this way the seedlings needed for the treatment.

The Chinese marshmallow (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), better known as rose marshmallow, is usually kept indoors as a houseplant, but can also be in the pot on a balcony or terrace during the summer. It is best multiplied by head or partial cuttings. The perennial hibiscus or marsh hibiscus (Hibiscus x moscheutos), whose cultivated forms also thrive in our gardens and are relatively hardy, is propagated by seed or culturally pure by cuttings.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Hibiscus x moscheutos

The flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (left) and Hibiscus x moscheutos (right)

Propagate hibiscus by sowing

If you want to multiply your garden marshmallow by sowing, you have to harvest the dried-up fruit capsules in autumn. Unfortunately, the hibiscus does not reliably produce seeds every year, but only after long summers of high temperatures. Alternatively, you can buy the seed from specialist retailers. In any case, you should store the seeds over the winter in a cool and dry place. Already in March you can sow the hibiscus seeds under glass. Once the last frosts are over, you can sow directly in the bed and in the garden. It takes at least four to five years for the hibiscus, which has been propagated by sowing, to show first flowers. The propagation of the perennial hibiscus occurs in the same way - but it comes to flower much earlier.

Hibiscus seedling

If the hibiscus sows in the garden itself, you can simply dig out the seedlings and transplant them to the desired place

Often the shrub marshmallow also sows itself in the garden, whereby the flower color and shape of the seedlings can differ later from the mother plant. The wild-grown seedlings are also well suited as treatment documents. You can also easily transplant them and cultivate them at another place in the garden. In early spring, carefully prune the seedling with a hand scoop and insert it again at the desired location. If you want to use it as a seedling base for the refinement, you should first cultivate the young hibiscus in the pot for a year and ennoble next spring.

Finishing of hibiscus

The garden marshmallow is particularly vigorous when propagated through refinement. Potted seedlings of Hibiscus syriacus, at least seven millimeters thick, are used as underlays. The refinement takes place from the beginning of January to mid-February through copulation, splitting or Geissfußpfropfen. Try to refine as close as possible to the root neck, as otherwise many wild shoots may arise. The finishing point is fixed with bast and then sealed with tree wax. It is best to keep the grafted plants frost-free in the greenhouse or plastic tunnel. After growing, they are first converted into larger pots and cultivated best in the first year in the cold house or film tunnel. Next spring they can be transplanted outdoors. Important: Young garden marshmallows are a bit sensitive to frost in unfavorable locations and should be covered with leaves and sprigs of fir in autumn for safety reasons.

Propagation over root cuttings

So-called root-propagated varieties of Hibiscus syriacus such as the dark-red flowering 'Rubi' can also be propagated via root cuttings - but their growth is usually weaker than that of grafted plants. In the fall, cut finger-thick pieces off the meaty roots and beat them into damp peat. The root cuttings must be stored frost-free until processing in December / January. Make sure that the roots do not dry completely during this time. Then about ten centimeters long pieces are cut horizontally from the roots and placed in potting soil. Press the root cuttings about one to two centimeters deep. A casting is not necessary, but you should keep the substrate constantly moderately moist. Set up the seed boxes cool and dark. As soon as the root cuttings expire, the young plantlets move to a bright location. Strongly growing varieties can be planted in the garden in late spring, all others should first be cultivated in the pot for a year.

Hibiscus multiply by means of woodpile

In the winter, the garden marshmallow can be propagated by means of plywood from the previous year's shoots. It is best cut in the fall immediately after the leaf fall and beats the shoots cut to length on pencil pieces in a shaded, unheated greenhouse in moist, slightly loamy humus soil. The growth rates are not high, but about five to ten percent of the sticks roots until spring. After the frosts have subsided, the rooted sticks can be transplanted into the bed.

Propagation by cuttings

Basically, all hibiscus species can be propagated through cuttings. For hobby gardeners, this propagation method is promising only in rose marshmallow (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and marsh hibiscus (Hibiscus moscheutos). The cuttings from the rose marshmallow are already cut in spring, shortly after sprouting. If flower buds are already present on the piece, you should remove them. In marsh marshmallow, the month of June is the optimal period for cuttings propagation.

Plant hibiscus seedling

Young hibiscus plants first stay in the pot and warm, before they can be planted in late spring

Propagation is done over non lignified head or partial cuttings. Slightly scrape the approximately ten centimeters long cuttings on the base with the cuttler knife and add some rooting powder (for example "Neudofix") to it. Then place three cuttings in small multi-pot plates or seed pots. The shoots are most likely to form roots at a soil temperature of at least 22 degrees Celsius. When the timing is right and the substrate is warm enough, the first roots usually form within three weeks. In the marsh marshmallow this is usually even faster.
Rose marshmallows are not hardy and the young plants must be cultivated in any case frost-free and not too cool in the house or in the heated greenhouse. The swamp marshmallow can be planted in the house after hibernation in the house, but needs a good winter protection.

Video Board: How to Grow Hibiscus from Cuttings.

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