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Each garden pond is a small biotope that works according to its own rules. Plants play a central role in this. No wonder then that the planting of a pond should be paid particular attention. Depending on the pond zone, it must be different, and not every plant is suitable for each zone. With a bit of background knowledge, you can easily handle it.
LocationThe location of a garden pond is not given by God. Rather, it is determined by the garden owner, who plans to create a pond. Already in the planning phase the later planting should be considered. For a good reason: Virtually all aquatic plants need a lot of light to grow and thrive. A sunny location is therefore an absolute must for every garden pond. In addition, there should be no deciduous trees in its immediate vicinity. These can affect the sun's rays on the pond. On the other hand, in the fall falling leaves in the pond can shake the biological balance.
Because: Foliage decomposes in the water to digested sludge and thus endangers certain organisms. It therefore makes more than sense to think of his plants when choosing a pond.
amountOf course, how many plants you can put on or in a garden pond depends on its area. It should be remembered that aquatic plants often need a lot of space. The best example of this is the classic, which must not be missing in any garden pond, namely the water lily. Depending on the species, they can grow to between one and four square meters - per plant, mind you. Since the size of the pond should not be saved from the outset. Often this is limited by certain factors in the garden. Therefore, the planting should always be adapted to the pond area. There are three rules for planting a garden pond that have proven themselves:
1. In no case plant the entire garden pond!
2. Provide a maximum of two-thirds of the area with flowering plants!
3. If possible, do not plant more than half of the pond!Keeping these rules in mind when planting, you can not really go wrong with regards to the amount of plants. They serve as a guide. One could also summarize these little rules: less is more! It is not just about the look, although of course this plays a big role. A garden pond, which is so heavily planted that hardly any water surface can be seen, should rather not fulfill its purpose. Much more crucial is that too many plants in the pond can favor the growth of algae. Too many algae in turn endanger the biological balance in the generally very fragile ecosystem of a garden pond.
A garden pond is not just a hole in the ground filled with water. Rather, it is made up of different zones, all of which have their own tasks, and whose design is based on the conditions of natural waters. Accordingly, a pond usually consists of a bank, which initially merges shallowly into the water and finally leads to a deep area. With regard to the planting of a pond, four zones can be distinguished:
- riparian zone
- Shallow water with a water depth of up to 20 centimeters
- Deep water with a water depth between 30 and 60 centimeters
- Deep zone, which is about 1.5 meters below the water surface
Note: Water plants, which are bought in the specialized trade, are always provided with information for which pond zone they are suitable. In most cases, there is even precise information on the ideal water depth, which should then be followed.
plantsThe selection of the plants with which one would like to plant his garden pond, thus depends on the respective pond zone. in the following small list, the plants are therefore also ordered by zone. It is only a small selection of possible plants. Decisive was to list on the one hand typical aquatic plants, on the other hand to mention only those that can be procured relatively easily.
In particular, undemanding and very easy-care grasses are perfect for the riparian zone.The task of the bank planting is to framing the pond and thereby setting visual accents. In addition, the plants perform something like a filter function for the water. Most commonly planted are bamboo (Bambusoideae), miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis), which is also known under the (fake) name elephant grass, and American pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana). The plants mentioned are basically hardy and can therefore also remain at their location if the pond itself should be frozen. With pampas grass, however, it is advisable to tie it together before the beginning of winter to protect it from frost. Other plants for the shore area are the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), the pink dwarf banana (Musa velutina) and the Antarctic tree fern (Dicksonia antarctica), which is considered to be remnants from the prehistoric times.
Shallow water zone
The typical representatives that can be found in this area are, above all, the Indian calamus (Acorus calamus), a typical marsh plant, as well as all types of frog spoon (Alisma). They only thrive there if they have not been planted too close to each other. As a rule of thumb, there should be at most three plants per square meter. Ideally, there are only two. If you want to stand out in terms of planting, you can also refer to the swimming pondweed (Potamogeton natans), the frog bite (Limnobium laevigatum), the swimming fern (Salvinia natans) and horny leaf (Ceratophyllum demersum), just to name a few.
For this zone, all perennial aquatic plants come into question. As a rule, however, one will limit oneself to a single one - to the water lily (Nymphaea), which is not in vain the queen of pond plants. As water lilies need a lot of space as mentioned above, other plants in the deep water zone usually have no chance anymore.
In this area inevitably only pure underwater plants are used. One could think of water plague (Elodea), water star (Callitriche palustris) or the water hose (Utricularia vulgaris). Also recommended are the fountain moss (Fontinalis spec), the spring moss (Fontinalis antipyretica), the hornwort (Ceratophyllum submersum) and the so-called fir frond (Hippurus vulgaris). All these underwater plants have in common that they have a positive effect on the so important oxygen content of the water, limit the formation of algae and also reduce certain undesirable substances. The minimum depth for the plants is 1.5 meters. They must also be planted in a special, commercially available Teicherde.
- For the deep zone and the deep water zone it is best to use plant baskets made of durable plastic or fabric.
- For the plants of the Tiefenzone necessarily use a special Teicherde.
- Before planting the riparian zone there erect a root barrier, otherwise the pond foil could be damaged by the roots.
- For the riparian zone also a so-called planting mat made of a self-dissolving material such as coconut is recommended.
- When planting water lilies in spring, the pond mirror must be raised in small steps, otherwise the plant has no chance to grow.
- In the plants of the shallow water zone floating plants are often used, which simply have to be exposed to the water surface.