Instructions: Winter cut at fruit trees and shrubs

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A regular conservation cut on fruit trees ensures that they thrive vigorously and provide a rich crop. At the same time, trees are controlled in their height growth in order to harvest the fruit by hand. The more harmoniously the crown is formed, the more abundant fruit shoots develop. Fruit bushes focus on maintaining both compact and airy growth without the risk of aging. The following instructions show how the winter cut of fruit trees and shrubs succeed.
Appointment and material requirements
Experience has shown that a cut in the period from October to January causes a particularly strong sprouting in the spring. On the other hand, if you want less growth because the wood has reached the desired height, then one day in February or March will be considered. At this time, some of the juices rose from the roots into the branches and are caught with the pruning. It is important to note that the weather is frost-free and covered. In addition, the wood should be dry. The following materials are required:

  • One hand scissors with locking and rubber dampers on the handles
  • Pruning shears with gear ratio
  • Hacksaw with revolver handle
  • Knife for smoothing cuts
  • Head with seal of quality
  • Ropes and straps for additional securing of the ladder
In addition, a whisker and alcohol for disinfecting are indispensable components of the equipment for a successful winter cutting of fruit trees and shrubs.
Instructions for young trees
In the second year, young fruit trees get their first cut. At this early stage of growth, this is aimed at building a shapely crown. The main drive is defined as well as three or four strong carrying branches, which emerge from the trunk at staggered points. Follow these steps:
  • Cut off all side shoots above the trunk until just before the trunk
  • Cut back the three or four supporting branches by half
  • The end of the drive must end up at the same height for the optimal juice balance
  • Shorten the main drive only so far that it surmounts the juice balance by 20 centimeters
The perfectly shaped crown of a young fruit tree has the shape of a pyramid viewed from the side. Up to the age of about 5 years, the structure and the height growth are maintained with each winter cut. At the end of the fruit tree has a skeleton, consisting of main trunk and main branches. Depending on the species and variety, the fruiting branches are distributed with a reasonable number of lateral branches.
Tip: If the branch angles increase slightly, this circumstance promotes growth to healthy, stable branches. Even with heavy fruit hanging they do not need to be supported later.
Instructions for the conservation section
If the crown of a fruit tree has developed satisfactorily, the phase of construction ends in conservation. The winter cut is made about the fifth year after these premises:
  • Complete all deadwood
  • All the steeply up-facing competition drives at the base
  • Too long to shorten weak shoots except for 4 or 5 eyes
  • Branches that are directed downwards, cut back on a young and vital shoot
  • Completely remove crossing or rubbing branches
  • Remove shoots directed into the interior of the crown
A girder should not have more than three branches, which are 100 centimeters apart and are slightly inclined upwards. The fruit branches in the interstices are ideally only half as long as the side branches. Over the years it is up to you to decide whether you allow height growth. In this case, the trunk is not shortened to build a second series of supporting boxes. The crown volume doubles in this way as well as the crop yield. A disadvantage should be the poorer accessibility of the fruit, which now sometimes consists of Fallobst.
Influence on the direction of growth
The more horizontally a side branch thrives, the better fruit shoots develop. If these branches do not want to move to the horizontal position by themselves, they help a little with a gimmick. Used plastic pots of various sizes are filled with concrete into which a curved wire is inserted. In this way you get after curing different weights to point the stubborn branches the way in the desired direction. On particularly vigorous fruit trees, experienced hobby gardeners use this technique to slow down the rate of growth. With the weights weighted side branches hardly grow longer. Instead, they increasingly develop the desired fruit shoots.
Proper editing technique
In addition to the knowledge of the ideal cut in a construction and maintenance cut, this manual will provide you with the tools for the optimal cutting technique on fruit trees.
  • One hand holds the cutting tool, the other the branch to be removed
  • Energizing the branch reduces the effort required
  • Do not leave stubs (clothes hooks) because they cause rot
  • Slight inclination of scissors or saw makes rainwater run faster
Powerful branches are removed in stages. First saw off the branch at a distance of 30 centimeters from the desired interface from below. Then saw off 40 centimeters from the top so that the branch breaks off. The remaining piece is now sawed down on Astring, ie directly on the trunk. The choice of the interface on the branch has a significant influence on the later growth direction of the drive extension. If the incision is just above an outward-looking eye, branching and growth will be exactly in that direction. Again, an oblique attitude is beneficial, at an angle of about 45 degrees to the branch.
Winter cut at fruit bushes
For fruit shrubs, the winter cut is also recommended, as no foliage obstructs the free view of the shoots. The cutback should have been done by the end of February, as this year's shootout is in the starting blocks. The vast majority of berry bushes are best for the one- to three-year-old branches. These sprung as a branch of the main drives, which were built in the first years after this strategy:
  • After planting take 3-4 vigorous shoots with an age of 1-2 years
  • Cut off all other branches in the first cut after the planting year
  • Continue until 1 pair of 1, 2, 3 and 4 year old shoots thrive
After the build-up phase you enter into the maintenance phase. Here, the winter cut aims at strengthening vitality and yield. Follow these steps:
  • Carefully level the shrubs
  • Cut off inward and weak shoots
  • The two oldest leading gears on the base caps
  • Twigs that were fruiting in the previous year, shorten to 2-4 eyes
  • Leave the two strongest specimens of the new branches
  • If necessary, cut them by a maximum of one third
In the end, air and sunshine reach all regions of the berry bushes. In addition, 2-3 branch branches, which develop into fruit shoots, thrive on each Leitast. Supernumerary branches are shortened to 2 buds, so they fruit in the year after next year. Resourceful hobby gardeners mark the branches according to their age with differently colored rings.
Tips for wound treatment
Cuts with a diameter of 20 millimeters and more require special attention. In order to prevent access to pathogens or pests, the following wound treatment is advisable:
  • Smooth the wound edges with the knife
  • Coat the cut surface with tree wax or another wound closure agent
  • Include a few millimeters of bark underneath
Since it was observed that decay can form under the seal, experienced hobby gardeners favor a modified approach. Not the entire wound area is painted, only the edges. The inner wound area is pollinated only with charcoal ash or prehistoric rock meal.
Do not be de-motivated by the claim that pruning fruit trees is a complicated science. In fact, all that is needed is a healthy gardening mind and this guide to master the winter cut of fruit trees and shrubs. A young fruit tree or berry shrub you educate according to your individual ideas, if a few basics are heeded. On a fully grown tree or shrub, with the right technique and cut, you can make an important contribution to a rich harvest over many years.

Video Board: How to Prune Fruit Trees The Right Way Every Time.

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