Koi in the garden pond - attitude, care and wintering


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After Koi look back on a long tradition in Asia, they have become increasingly popular in Germany for several years now. Unfortunately, pond owners are not concerned enough with the highly complex topic of species-friendly Koi attitude before buying, which has fatal consequences. Because although Koi belong to the carp and are therefore very adaptable by nature, countless things must be observed in the attitude, if you want to enjoy as long as possible and with a good conscience of the beautiful animals.
The koi pond

If possible, the koi pond should be in the shade, so that the water is not overheated by direct sunlight. The problem is less the actual temperature, but rather the oxygen content of the water, which decreases with increasing water temperatures. For this reason, the pond surface should

do not have too dark a color to reflect sunlight rather than attract. Regardless, one can see the koi better on such a surface. In addition, it would be advantageous if the sun is offered the least possible "attack surface". However, this does not mean that the pond can be small overall, as Koi continue to grow until the end of their lives, and playfully reach a length of one meter or more.
Therefore, each koi should have at least one cubic meter of water. As a result, it is recommended to build the Koi pond in depth rather than width and length. Ideal would be an average depth of a good two meters, especially as even in unusually hot summers at the bottom of the pond still cool temperatures prevail. In addition, the pond can not freeze to the bottom due to the depth of the water in winter, so you do not necessarily have to move your Koi to overcome in an aquarium in the house. In addition, pond heating, which is highly recommended by many koi owners, is not an absolute must if there is sufficient water depth, at least in temperate winter areas, although it can certainly provide a sense of security.
Nevertheless, care should always be taken in the winter to ensure that the pond surface does not freeze completely, otherwise the oxygen content in the water could become too low. In addition, an opening in the ice layer indicates that any gases that may be produced, for example, during the decomposition of organic substances can still escape from the pond. Usually, however, it is usually sufficient to cover the pond with a tarpaulin to avoid freezing of the water surface. One often hears that the use of circulating pumps would prevent the pond surface from freezing. That's not wrong. However, this would bring down the very cold water on the surface to the bottom of the pond, so that the actually safe Koi could freeze. In summer, however, it makes sense to use said circulating pumps, as they enrich the water with vital oxygen. If you do not want to rely on a tarpaulin alone, you can also use a float that easily swirls the water on the surface. Here too, care must be taken that the turbulence does not transport cold water to the ground.
However, if the pond is covered with a continuous layer of ice, it must never be smashed, as the resulting noise could harm the fish. Instead, hot water should be poured onto the ice until a hole in the ice has formed.
Since Koi love not only oxygen-rich, but also clean water with a pH that is as constant as possible, adequate ventilation, floor drains, defoamers and a high-performance filter system should be included in the construction of the Koi pond. With regard to the filter system, make sure that its capacity is sufficient to pass all the water from the pond through the filter at least once an hour. Therefore, the diameter of the associated pipes should not be too low, otherwise unnecessarily much pump power would be needed. In addition, the water should be replaced regularly. However, the water exchange must be carried out only gradually, otherwise it can lead to strong temperature fluctuations and fluctuations of the pH. In addition, the associated stress for the Koi could be too big.
Furthermore, the pH of the water should be checked regularly, as it should neither be too high nor too low. Where the pH of a properly landscaped pond should naturally be in the ideal range, unless you use too soft or hard water to fill the pond. Regardless Koi have a relatively high tolerance threshold, as long as the value remains largely constant. If the pH value deviates too seriously from the norm, it is usually sufficient to add ordinary clay to the water.However, if that does not improve, an experienced expert should be consulted. Under no circumstances may inexperienced koi owners experiment with any means commercially available for pH regulation, as they may aggravate already existing damage. In terms of hardness of the water is still to be noted that hard water contains a lot of lime. Since too much lime can damage not only the koi itself, but in the long run also the devices that are used for water treatment.
The right koi feeding
Koi should be fed even if the water in the pond due to the plant growth and the small animals living in it supposedly rich in nutrients. Although koi are omnivores, it is still advisable to use special koi feed when feeding. However, you must not give Koi too much food, otherwise there is an increased contamination of the water by not eaten food. Whereby Koi should be very carefully accustomed to the food in the first 14 weeks after the purchase, as they are usually rather sparsely fed by traders. In addition, the water temperature plays an important role in the diet, since koi can digest food in cold water worse. Therefore, at low temperatures, only low-fat feed based on readily digestible carbohydrates should be used, whereas with increasing temperatures, increasingly high-protein fats can be exchanged. In winter, however, should not be fed at all.
Find out more about koi care in a nutshell
The abundance of things that must be taken into account when creating a suitable pond and the right attitude, can instantly deter. Since the Nishikigoi, as the colorful carp were originally called, are unspeakably beautiful and exceedingly fascinating animals, it is worthwhile to deal in greater detail with the consistently interesting topic of the species-friendly Koi attitude.
The word Nishikigoi comes from the Japanese and means as much as colorful carp, but has prevailed the short form Koi while the beautiful fish are not real Japanese. Rather, one assumes as their place of origin East Asia, the Black and Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea and China. But there are also traditions that suggest the origin of Koi in Iran, from where he later came to Asia.
Attitude / Care
  • Species-appropriate nutrients are primarily aquatic fish nutrients and additional aquatic and algal constituents.
  • Since the amount of natural food in the conventional ornamental pond is far from sufficient, one must feed.
  • Koi are omnivores, but the type of food depends heavily on the water temperature.
  • If it is low, the animals can digest what they eat worse and should mainly get easily digestible carbohydrates.
  • As the water temperature rises, it is important to gradually switch to a diet with higher levels of fat and protein.
  • In the nutrients balanced food is obtained from various providers on the Internet or even with special breeders.

Koi dealer and breeder / Koizuchter

  • Koi are fed rather sparingly at the dealer, so they do not burden the water so much.
  • However, the koi lover tends to indulge his pets too much because they are constantly begging for food.
  • In the first 10-14 days, the fresh koi fed in the garden pond should only receive small portions of easily digestible wheat germ food.

The actual Koisaison begins only in spring, when the temperatures constantly above 16° C move. In winter, if you do not bring the animals anyway into the house, think in any case of a heating system for the pond. The temperature should not fall below 4° C, which may also be achieved with a suitable pond cover.

History of Koi

From 1800, the first color variations were observed and began to deliberately create and modify them through crossbreeding. The appearance of each Koi depends on its breed form, of which there are now about 100 different. The most important are:

  • Ai-goromo: white with red spots and a dark, net-like drawing
  • Tancho: especially popular with the Japanese, as his drawing looks white with a single red dot on the head, like the Japanese flag
  • Utsurimono: black with white, red or yellow drawing
  • Bekko: white, yellow or red with black drawing
  • Ogon: metallic

Another characteristic of the up to 1 meter in size, koi are the two pairs of barbs, one at the top and one at the bottom of the mouth. He is up to 60 years old.

Koi - prices

Koi imported from Japan can already achieve prices of up to 400, - Euro or more as young animals. A laureate at an exhibition can even reach lovers of up to one hundred thousand euros. Meanwhile, however, the so-called Eurokoi are available on the market, breeders of European breeders who are offered relatively cheap, but hardly ever will increase in value.However, one should not forget that the creation of a perfect koi pond alone already devours about 2,000-5,000 euros!

As far as their habitat is concerned, the exotics are quite demanding. Originally from lakes and slowly flowing waters, they also need a very large pond as a decorative fish with extremely clean, filtered water. The koi pond should not be less than 15,000 liters and be about 2 m deep. Added to this is the filter system, whose volume should contain about 20-30% of the pond volume and can never be big enough.

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