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There are grapevines in many gardens today and the yields are often not bad. This entices some garden owners to try their own wine.
In the production of wine from grapes, it is extremely important that the grapes are very ripe. Also, grape wine should never be diluted with water, that would totally dilute the wine.
In our latitudes, the location and the weather are often not ideal for grapes. Therefore, their acidity is usually not ideal. He usually has too high acidity. Once the acid loss is too high, it is quite easy to acidify the wine. One uses citric or lactic acid. However, this is very rare in our areas.
So that wine from grapes does not taste sour and reaches a sufficient shelf life, the grape juice should have 6-9 grams of acid per liter and a must weight of at least 85ËšOechsle. It should be taken very carefully with the measurement, because the sugar and acidity of the grapes can be very different. If you know the exact values, you can make appropriate corrections, ie deacidification and added sugars.
Red or white wine?
There is a significant technological difference between the production of red and white wine. The dye of red grapes is almost always fixed in the berry skin. So you can not squeeze a red mash like a white after a short time, because it would be totally colorless. To achieve the red color, the mash must either be heated or subjected to mash fermentation.
After the grape harvest, the stems are first removed from the fruits. Then the berries are minced, the mash is formed.
- Mash of white grapes is enzymatically pectin degraded, sulfurized and left covered for a few hours before the juice is squeezed. For enzyme and sulfur there are corresponding funds in the cooperative markets such as the Raiffeisen markets and others.
- Mash of red grapes must be subjected to mash fermentation or mash heating. When heated, the mash is heated to 85 ËšC and then cooled again. At 50 ËšC the enzyme is enzymatically. When the mash has cooled to room temperature, the juice is squeezed and sulphurized.
The squeezed juice of both grape varieties is clarified by screening or peeling after a settling time.
The acidity and must weight are tested with the Öchsle acid test. If the juice must be deacidified, it has more than 9g of acid per liter of lime. 0.7 g of lime per liter reduces acidity by 1g / l. If, on the other hand, the wine needs to be improved, that is, if the juices have less than 85ËšOe must weight, the value must be increased. For this purpose, table sugar is used. 2.5 g of sugar per liter increase the must weight by 1 ËšOe.
If you have the optimal juice, this is filled into a fermentation tank. In addition you give pure breeding yeast (after packing instructions). Now you can leave the fermentation approach.
The fermentation tank must never be completely filled. About 10 percent are released. The vessel is sealed with a fermentation cap with tubes. The temperatures inside the container should be between 10 and 20 ËšC.
As soon as no more carbon dioxide is visible, fermentation is complete. The young wine is withdrawn about 2 weeks later from Hefegeläger. It's best to sulfurize it right away. The wine is left to the post-fermentation and self-clarification in a full-filled container.
After 6 to 8 weeks, the wine is withdrawn a second time. If necessary, must be polished and / or filtered. Finishing means that not very clear wine is clarified with cold-soluble gelatin or silica sol.
The now finished wine is bottled, preferably in glass bottles that can be properly closed.