The Content Of The Article:
- Appearance and growth
- Location and ground
- care Tips
- Education and editing
- Harvest and recovery
- winter protection
- variety Tips
- Diseases and pests
Mirabellen (Prunus domestica subsp. Syriaca) is - like plum and Renekloden - a subspecies of the plum and belongs as well as this to the family of the rose family (Rosaceae). The stone fruit comes originally from Asia Minor and since about 1900 is also common in Germany. In 1803, the mirabelle was first described as Prunus syriaca. It was not classified as a subspecies of the plum until the middle of the 20th century and has since then been given the botanical name Prunus domestica subsp. syriaca. How this subspecies came about is still not clear. However, it is believed that it was created from a cross between plum and cherry plum or plum and blackthorn.
Mirabelle, or Italian Mirabella, means "the beautiful ones". Because of their very similar appearance, miracelles are often confused by laymen with the wild cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) or the cibarte (Prunus domestica subsp. Prisca), which is native to southern Germany in particular. However, the fruits of these two fruit trees have a smoother shell, are especially after heating quite sour and the stone dissolves even at full ripeness of the meat. On the other hand, mirabelles exude a honey smell on the branch and taste very sweet.
Appearance and growth
Small, white flowers decorate the mirabelle plum tree in spring
The Mirabelle grows more like a shrub than a tree and grows between three and five meters high. The sparse fruit tree with pale reddish bark forms a broad roundish crown with branching branches. The leaves are small, ovate, with a smooth and dark green top and slightly hairy underside. The edges of the alternate leaves are sawn. From April to May small, white flowers appear, which are arranged in dense umbels. The almost round yellow fruits with leathery shell have a diameter of two centimeters and are mottled red.
Location and ground
Mirabelle plums need a warm and sheltered location, for example, near a house wall. The soil should be loose and permeable, nutrient-rich and slightly moist. Mirabelle plums thrive in neutral to slightly alkaline locations.
Rootless Mirabelle trees are recommended for planting in autumn. Pick up a pit twice the size of the root ball. Then loosen the soil a bit and put in the mirabelle. A support post ensures good grip. Then put the excavation in the planting hole together with well rotten horse manure. How to create optimal starting conditions for your mirabelle.
Water the mirabelle plum well after planting. A mulch layer protects the wood from drying out of the soil. Especially during prolonged periods of drought, you should water the Mirabelle sufficient and penetrating, while avoiding waterlogging. Fertilization requires a dose of compost in early spring.
Education and editing
In order to ensure a good fruit yield, you should illuminate the mirabelle tree regularly in early spring. When Auslichtungsschnitt you best leave a central drive and three to four side shoots, which later bear many fruits. Long shoots, which hardly bloom in the crown area, should be cut back vigorously, since otherwise they compete with the mainspring. In addition, you should cut out water shoots and small side shoots already during the summer and after the harvest.
There are self-pollinated varieties, but also those that need to pollinate the pollen of a second variety, so-called Fremdbefruchter. As a rule, the common varieties 'Nancy' and 'Bellamira' are self-pollinating, but by planting a second variety, the yield can often be increased.
The sweet fruits are ready for harvest in the fall over several weeks
Harvest and recovery
The correct harvest time can be recognized by the distinctive color of the peel and as soon as the fruits yield slightly to gentle finger pressure.
You can harvest for several weeks. In particularly "hangfesten" varieties such as 'Bellamira' you can take your time and use the fruits gradually. Anyone who appreciates a little bit of acidity should hurry up with their picking because the mirabelle plums are getting sweeter day by day. You can either nibble it fresh from the tree or process it into cakes, quark and pastries. In the fridge, the mirabelle leaves only a few days fresh, better you pitted them quickly and freezes them for the stock. Mirabelle plums are particularly suitable for jam and jelly, but also for the production of mirabelle plum brandy and canning - so you can have some of the sweet fruit even longer.
The small mirabelle plaques do not last very long if left unprocessed and should therefore either be quickly processed into jelly or liqueur or frozen
In the early years, young mirabelle plum trees should still be wrapped with a fleece in winter and thus be protected from severe frosts. A white coat reduces the risk of frost cracks.
Most of the mirabelle plums are still growing in Lorraine, and from there comes the famous 'Mirabelle de Nancy'. There, "La Reine de Lorraine" is still the culinary landmark of the region and the basis of many delicious recipes.
'Nancy' is a rich variety whose sweet-sweet fruits are ripe from the end of August until about the end of September. The small, round golden yellow fruits are slightly reddish dotted. The variety, which is particularly suitable for jams and preserves, is resistant to the Scharka virus. 'Bellamira' is a cross between plum and Nancy-Mirabelle and is rainproof. The spherical, yellow-green fruits taste fine-sour and can be used in many ways. The variety is less likely to yield variations than others. 'Miragrande' is a large-fruited, resistant breed from the Rheingau. The firm, juicy, golden-ripe fruits ripen from the end of August. 'Berudge' grows only moderately strong, the harvest is all the richer. The small, sugar sweet, pink fruits give compote and jam an appetizing color.
You can multiply mirabelles by sowing and rooting. Propagation by seeding rarely leads to success, however, and mirabelle-tree trees, which are grown from seeds, do not bear fruit until after seven to eight years.
Unrefined Mirabelle trees can also be propagated via rootstock. Here, well-developed shoots are separated from the main root and planted in small pots with seedling soil. Keep the soil well moist until it becomes rooted.
Diseases and pests
Mirabelle plums are generally less susceptible to diseases and pests than prunes and plums. Nevertheless, the plum sawdust, the plum moth, the aphid and the spider moth sometimes appear. In addition, a plum moth infestation may result in Monilia infection.