Mirabelle tree - varieties, plants and instructions for care


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Mirabelle - Prunus Domestica

The mirabelle tree usually does not grow as a tree, but large, spreading shrub. Its upright branches usually branch very strong. Foliage and flowers develop at the same time. Although this plant is grown mainly for its versatile fruit, its abundant flowering in spring is spectacular. High season for the sweet and juicy fruits is between July and September. The fruit peel, as in the plum, leathery shiny. The almond-like kernel inside the fruit can be easily detached when fully ripe.

sorts

Among the many types of mirabelles there are self-fertile varieties and those that need a variety of fertilizers. The vast majority, however, is self-fertile. When buying the appropriate plants, you should prefer varieties that are particularly resistant and have a good resistance to the dreaded Scharkakrankheit. The most widely grown and best known variety is the mirabelle from Nancy. But other varieties are this at least in the taste in no way.

Mirabelle from Nancy

The Mirabelle from Nancy is an old French variety and at the same time the best known. It is self-fertile and at the same time a good pollinator. In addition, she is very vigorous and needs plenty of space. The almost spherical, yellow and slightly reddish on the sun side are ripe for harvest from mid to late August. They are moderately juicy, sweet and spicy in taste.

Butcher Mirabelle

This medium to strong growing small tree is also self-fertile and very productive. The yellow fruits are aromatic, very sweet and juicy with a pleasant smell. They are already enjoyable or ready for harvest from July.

Miragrande

Miragrande is a relatively new, productive and self-fertile variety. It is very vigorous and bears fruit already from the second year, with the full yield starting around the fourth year. The juicy and aromatic fruits are comparatively large yellow and like almost all varieties, reddish dotted on the sun. The ripe for consumption occurs between the end of August and the middle of September.

Early Mirabelle from Bergthold

Bergthold is an old, self-fertile and early variety. It ripens in the 5th plum week, about 3 weeks earlier than the variety 'Nancy'. She has a certain tolerance to the Scharkakrankheit on. The fruits are slightly smaller, golden yellow with a reddish sunny side and medium firm, quickly softening pulp. They are sweet with a typical mirabelle aroma.

Bellamira

This variety is self-fertile and very productive. In addition, it is very robust against the Sharka and Moniliakrankheit. The fruits are large and golden yellow with firm, juicy and sweet tasting pulp. The ripe for consumption is between mid-August and mid-September.

Mirabelle 'Von Pillnitz'

Mirabelle - Prunus Domestica

This fast-growing, upright and high-yielding strain also has a high tolerance to the Scharkakrankheit. The yellow, very sweet and aromatic fruits are enjoyable or ready for harvest between August and September. Thanks to its maximum height of 300 cm, it is also very suitable for smaller gardens.

Apricot mermel 'Aprimira'

The apricot mirabelle has a tight upright, almost columnar growth. Unlike most other varieties, 'Aprimira' needs a pollinator. The fruits are orange-yellow with sun-reddish cheeks and firm pulp. Its taste is honey sweet with a light apricot aroma.

plants

When planting, it is first of all a question of whether the plants are a self-fertile or a variety that require a Befruchtersorte. With the latter, more space is needed, so you should plan about 20 m² per plant. Planting distances of about five meters are recommended. It can be planted both in autumn and in spring, depending on whether it is bare root or container plants.
  • Root-bare plants preferably in foliage-free time, plant from September
  • They take a little longer to grow
  • Container plants can be planted year-round
  • Water the root ball thoroughly before planting
  • This makes the plant easier to grow
  • In the meantime dig a planting pit
  • It should be at least twice as deep and wide as the bale
  • Then loosen soil on the bottom of the plant hole
  • Then give part of the excavation
  • For optimal hold, the simultaneous insertion of a support post is recommended
  • Support pile should be used about 50 cm from the trunk
  • He should reach below the crown
  • Now insert the mirabelle plum tree
  • Finishing point should be about a hand's breadth above the ground
  • Earth excavation with well rotted compost or manure mix
  • Fill the planting hole with earth excavation
  • After filling, soil the soil and water well
  • Loosely attach the support with coconut rope or the like to the trunk
Tip: Even if you own a self-fertile variety and basically no further plant is required, a second specimen can significantly increase the fruit yield.

Location

Mirabelle is one of the annual flowering plants in the year and loves warm and sunny. However, they can be sensitive to late frosts in spring. Accordingly, one should pay attention to a sunny to partially shaded and especially protected from wind and weather location. In order to develop their full aroma, mirabelle plums should be as sunny as possible.
Ideally, they are planted near a wall, a house wall or in front of a tall, evergreen hedge. When choosing the right location, you should definitely consider the final height of the mirabelle tree and its expansive growing crown. Depending on the variety, it can grow up to 600 cm in height and the crown can reach a diameter of up to 400 cm.
Tip: For smaller gardens, low-growth varieties are best. In addition, these plants are u.a. Also offered as so-called pillar fruit that you can keep very well in the bucket on the terrace and balcony due to the growth habit.

ground

Mirabelle fruit

The mirabelle plum tree makes no great demands on the condition of the soil. It should only be loose, well drained, humic, nutritious and slightly moist. Optimal is a pH between 6 and 6.5. Optionally, the addition of lime may be useful. The permeability of heavy or compacted soils can be improved by incorporating coarse sand. The only thing that should be avoided is waterlogging.

maintenance

The flowers of the mirabelle plum tree appear already between April and May and immerse the environment in a white sea of ​​flowers. The care required for this abundance of flowers and the resulting fruit yield is comparatively low. But without care it is not synonymous with this plant.

to water

  • Water young mirabelle plum trees regularly and well in the year of planting
  • Also applies to prolonged heat and drought in summer
  • Later, these plants can feed themselves well
  • Waterlogging should be avoided
  • Spreading a mulch layer on the root area is recommended
  • Can protect the soil from excessive dehydration
  • Provides the plant with important nutrients
  • It is best to spread the mulch layer directly after planting
  • Should be renewed every year

Fertilize

In order to supply the mirabelle tree with sufficient nutrients, it is generally sufficient to administer some compost once in spring and early summer or to fertilize it with home-made nettle or comfrey.

To cut

Mirabelle trees are relatively strong. Without a cut, the crown would branch strongly and eventually become so dense that hardly any sunlight can reach the inside of the crown, which the fruits need to mature. To keep the crown permeable, regular cutting measures are indispensable. In the first two years can be dispensed with. Later, depending on what you want to achieve with the respective section, you talk about an upbringing, an extermination and a rejuvenation cut.

education section

An upbringing cut is to promote an upright and even trunk (strong, medium main shoot) and evenly distributed horizontal ladders around this trunk. Later on, the fruit-bearing shoots form on these leaders. The parenting cut should already be made on young trees, for example from the second year. The main drive should neither be cut nor injured in cutting measures. As leaders you choose only healthy and strong side shoots, which are about the same height. All shoots growing beneath the leaders are removed at the base.

Auslichtungsschnitt

Mirabelle - Prunus domestica

The Auslichtungsschnitt refers to the crown and should be made annually in early spring. It aims to ensure that enough light and air can reach the interior of the crown again.
  • Remove all inward growing, dead and intersecting shoots
  • Cut out growing shoots and so-called water shoots
  • Water cannons usually formed inside the crown of sleeping buds
  • They are upright, soft shoots
  • Mirabelle tree responds to Auslichtungsschnitt with increased formation of new shoots
  • Not all these shoots are suitable as fruit shoots
  • Limit increased shootout in the next year with renewed Auslichtungsschnitt

rejuvenation pruning

Older trees that have been neglected for a long time and left to their own devices can be corrected with a rejuvenation cut and stimulated to a healthy growth again. Often, over the years, a jumble of branches and branches has formed, which should be reduced by this cut back to a healthy level.
First you look at the tree to decide which Astkombinationen come together with the upper part of the stem to the ideal image of a bright crown with evenly distributed Leitästen the next. Then you can remove all, this ideal image disturbing branches. The intermediate result should be checked again and again and less than once too much the saw should be scheduled. To prevent the branches from ripping, first saw a little farther from the trunk, until finally the branch stump is sawn off near the trunk.

overwinter

In the early years, young mirabelle plum trees can still be wrapped with fleece during the winter, thus protecting them from severe frosts. With age, the frost hardness increases. Older specimens are usually hardy to minus 30 degrees. Even in winter, the soil should not dry out as completely as possible. Therefore, it is advisable, especially in dry winters, occasionally to pour moderately, but only on frost-free days.

multiply

sowing

  • For sowing use only seeds of fully matured fruits
  • File seeds slightly before sowing
  • If necessary, additionally soak in room-warm water for 24 hours
  • This should facilitate germination
  • Then put the seeds in small pots with good garden soil
  • It is best to always sow several seeds, not everyone is able to germinate
  • Moisten the soil and place pots in a warm place
With a little luck, the first nuclei germinate after a few weeks. If the seedlings are big and strong enough, choose the strongest and cultivate them in the pot first and plant them outside next spring. Seed-grown plants bear fruit for the first time at the earliest after 6 or 7 years.

root boom

For a propagation over root bracket you should use only root-genuine, so unrefined plants. For processed plants, only the substrate used for processing would multiply. In order to obtain suitable rootlobes, one exposes the root area of ​​a well developed cantilever, which should have both some leaves and roots. With a sharp tool you then separate it from the main root.
Then you put it first in a rooting powder and then in small pots with Zanderde or right in the garden in the ground. The soil should always be kept slightly moist for the next few weeks.

Diseases

plum pox

The Scharkakrankheit caused by the Scharkavirus is often difficult to recognize as such. On the leaves show in the summer washed-looking, cloud-like brightening, the fruits are scarred, with grooved and smallpox-like deformations. The pulp is rubbery and locally reddish. Control is usually not possible, affected plants must be completely removed and disposed of. As a precaution, you should pay attention to the most resistant varieties that can be affected but do not show these symptoms.

Shotgun disease

Mirabelle shotgun disease

Small red-brown spots on the leaves, which later die off and fall out of the leaf tissue, may indicate the shotgun disease. The causative agent is a fungus that occurs especially in damp weather in spring. Most of the disease is more pronounced in the lower part of the plants. Suitable for controlling are special fungicide preparations from specialist retailers. By working the mirabelle tree e.g. regularly cleared, in a well-ventilated and protected against continuous rain location and resistant varieties preferred.

Monilia-tip burn

The Monilia lace drought occurs mainly on stone fruit and can be seen first on the annual wood of young shoots. Entire flower clusters wither immediately after opening. As a result, the leaves fade, hang limply and wither. To combat diseased shoots should, immediately after detecting an infestation, be cut off until well into the healthy wood and picked up all the fallen fruit and leaves and disposed of with household waste.

pests

Winter Moth

The larvae of Frostspanner (green caterpillars) cause in spring feeding points on young leaves and shoot tips, with a strong infestation can go to Kahlfraß. To protect against these pests, the trees can be protected in the fall with glue rings. If these are dried or dirty, they should be renewed. The small caterpillars can be fought with approved pesticides.

Beutelgallmilbe

Mirabelle - Prunus Domestica

Show up in the spring on the leaf undersides and particularly the leaf margins greenish growths, called bile, which turn out reddish in the summer, it may be infested with the Beutelgallmilbe. Control with pesticides is only necessary if over several years repeatedly a strong infestation occurs.

aphids

At Mirabellen several aphid species can occur. Usually an infestation is only detected when the leaves curve or curl up and the damage has already occurred.Older plants survive an aphid attack usually without any problems, so that a fight is not mandatory. Otherwise, preparations with potash soap or rapeseed oil can be used, whereby oily agents should not be used during flowering.
Conclusion
The mirabelle plum tree is a must for many hobby gardeners. This is mainly due to its delicious and versatile fruit but also the beautiful flower that initiates spring in April / May. Depending on the variety, mirabelle plums take on their intense yellow or yellow-red color between August and September and can be harvested. For a permanently high fruit yield, the mirabelle plum tree should be cut regularly. Otherwise, he is very easy-care and undemanding.

Video Board: Tree & Plant Care : How to Grow Plum Trees.

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