NPK fertilizer - composition and application

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NPK fertilizer - composition and application NPK fertilizer is also referred to as a complete fertilizer. It is a complex mixture of 1, 2 and 3 component fertilizers. This process makes the range of fertilizers available almost unlimited. The three categories of fertilizers are organic fertilizer, organic mineral fertilizer and mineral fertilizer.
Differences in composition
Decisive for the fertilizer, which is necessary in the trade for the various cultures, is the mixing ratio. Proportionate attention is paid to the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. So the fertilizer is then purchased, what he should be used for.
Too little nitrogen (N) is often responsible for the plants remaining relatively small. This is because the growth-important green dye is poorly formed. Partial nitrogen is not only used in the form of NPK fertilizer, but is added directly in the form of ammonium nitrogen or saltpetre over the plants. The phosphorus (P) in the NPK fertilizer is responsible for the formation of chlorophyll. Again, there is the option to use this separately or in combination, for better development of the flowers and leaves. Potassium (K) is required to stimulate plant metabolism. As a result, the cell walls are strengthened and is particularly needed for potatoes or other fruits that are to be stored. In addition to promoting maturation and resistance, potassium, which is readily soluble in the soil, can also be considered as a reserve fertilizer. But lime, magnesium and trace elements must not be missing in the fertilizer. The lime promotes the neutralization of the acids, has a germicidal effect and serves to decompose the organic matter. In the earth, magnesium binds the bases and acids. It is also a component of chlorophyll and is directly involved in photosynthesis. The proportion of trace elements in the NPK fertilizer is especially important if the soil is not fertilized with compost at certain intervals.
Dangers when fertilizing
Fertilization with the NPK fertilizer should not take place in the greatest heat in direct sunlight. Furthermore, it should not be given directly to the root system. There is a risk here, as it leads to acidification of the soil and the root. Dying roots is favored in this case. Similarly, the fertilizer should not be poured or sprinkled directly on the plant and its flowers. If too much fertilizer is used, there is a risk of over-fertilization. The soil fauna would be permanently damaged, which leads to negative changes. This in turn is reflected in the yields and the quality of the products and plants. In the worst case, death by plasmolysis occurs.
NPK fertilizer and its benefits
If the fertilizer is applied as needed, it serves to supply humans and animals. The yield is increased by the fertilization. The microorganisms in the soil are supplied with the nutrients. No chemical conversion is usually subject to the mineral fertilizer. As a result, he is directly available to the plants.
NPK fertilizer and the disadvantages
When used correctly, there are hardly any disadvantages for the plants and the soil. Only the energy for the production of whole fertilizer is disadvantageous compared to the biological alternatives.
Alternatives with fertilizers
In principle, organic fertilizers are ideal. There are different variants for this purpose.

  • Slurry
  • solid manure
  • liquid manure
  • digestate
  • compost
  • fermentation sludge
Manure accumulates as farmyard manure, especially in larger farms of livestock. The nutrient content of the manure differs according to the species. The proportion of organically bound nitrogen is the higher the amount of manure in the manure. The nutrients in the solid manure are dependent on the animals. Particularly advantageous for the soil is the straw part in solid manure. This fundamentally improves the properties of the soil. The fertilization with manure is very weather-dependent. It consists mainly of urine, which should be applied only in dry weather. In agriculture, fermentation residues and sludge are also used for fertilization. Interesting for the hobby gardener is the compost. For the application one should distinguish the following criteria,
  • bio-compost
  • Green waste compost
  • Operation compost
In the garden, compost is virtually a universal fertilizer. It helps the flowers to grow well and look great. The vegetables grow healthy and strong. Even for the berries, the compost is great.
lawn fertilization
Before buying the fertilizer, it has to be taken into consideration whether it is ornamental grass, turf or sport turf. The need for potassium and phosphorus is approximately the same. The differences in the composition of the fertilizer are reflected in the amount of nitrogen.The prices for 20 kg range from 35.00 Euro to more than 60.00 Euro.
flowers fertilization
Here, the selection is already much more complex. Offered are universal fertilizer and special fertilizer. The use is in solid form, liquid and possible for potted plants with fertilizer sticks. As a rule, it is apparent from the packaging for which flower the fertilizer is particularly suitable. Just for guidance, it should be mentioned that, for example, 1 liter of liquid fertilizer is commercially available between 5.00 euros to more than 15.00 euros.
vegetables fertilization
This is mainly sold in bags or sacks. Before purchasing, it is important to check what the proportions of the ingredients should be for the particular type of vegetables. The packaging is to be taken from the mixing ratio. On average, you can estimate for 5 kg of vegetable fertilizer between 13.00 euros and more than 25.00 euros.
Worth knowing about the NPK fertilizer
Plant fertilization is one of the responsibilities of a responsible plant owner. Whether in the garden or in the house next to the right location and the right watering also the fertilization plays a big role to the flourishing of the plants.
There are a variety of fertilizers. Finding the right one is often not easy. NPK fertilizer is a so-called complete fertilizer. This fertilizer contains the main nutrients potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus in a balanced composition. Hence the name: N for nitrogen, P for phosphate and K for potassium.
On the packaging is often stated N-P-K = and then follow different numbers. These numbers represent the contained concentration of the elements in percent. How the composition must be depends on the plant to be fertilized. Depending on the area of ​​application, the NPK fertilizers may also be enriched with trace nutrients.
NPK fertilizer is commercially available in solid and liquid form. Which form the flower friend decides depends on his preferences. For example, if you fertilize irrigation water, you use liquid fertilizer.
If the fertilizer is to be introduced directly into the soil, then the solid form is recommended. Solid fertilizer dissolves more slowly and releases the nutrients for longer. Liquid fertilizer, on the other hand, can be absorbed by the plant immediately, but re-fertilization is usually needed earlier than with solid fertilizer.
The advantage of NPK fertilizers is their ease of use and ease of transport. Due to the high content of nutrients further doses of other fertilizers are not required.
In addition, the environment is less burdened, as compared to the nutrient content less salt in the fertilizer is available. NPK fertilizers are quite expensive. One should think carefully whether this fertilizer is the right one or whether it should rather be a single fertilizer or a multi-nutrient fertilizer.
Before using fertilizer, you should take a soil sample - at least for plants in the garden - to determine the exact nutrient requirement.

Video Board: A Beginners Guide: NPK in Hydroponics.

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