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Location and ground

All onions grow best in full sun, warm places in the vegetable garden. The soil should be loose, humus rich and evenly moist. A certain amount of clay is an advantage, as onions develop best with a steady supply of water. Who has a pure sandy soil, should provide over the years for a high humus content by regularly incorporating compost.

Onions are extremely sensitive in the juvenile stage, therefore, a secret of success is careful bed preparation. Loosen the soil deeply with a sow tooth at least one week before sowing or planting, so that the soil can settle well until sowing. Use three liters of compost flat per square meter and then cover the bed with fleece.


"If you want bulbs thick, if you sow them to Benedikt" is an old farmer rule.The 21st of March is actually recommended as a sowing date: Onion seeds germinate already at temperatures of five degrees and benefit from the winter moist soil Centimeters and isolate the seedlings to the final distance of five to ten centimeters when the leaflets are about ten centimeters long.A immediate sowing at the right distance is not recommended, because the germination rate of the seeds is usually well below 100 percent.

The up to one pound of cucumbers cultivated in the Mediterranean, in our climate, do not grow larger than normal onions, unless you prefer them in February in a warm, bright place. Cultivation in pot plates with later planting is practiced in commercial cultivation because of the poor germination rate and early harvesting even with commercially available varieties. In the garden, the method is especially worthwhile on soils that dry off only slowly in the spring. Place five to seven of the edged, black seeds per pot and place the seedlings and pot bales in the bed when the third or fourth leaves appear. In the beginning, the groups are a bit tight. As they grow, however, the onions themselves gain the necessary space. In the pot-sowing of shallots, three seeds per desired plant. Spring onions are sown or tucked into the bed at close intervals: three centimeters in the row and 15 centimeters in between are sufficient.

The sowing of winter onions for the harvest next May will take place in the second half of August. However, cultivation is recommended only in slightly milder regions, as the onions do not tolerate excessive frosts. Before the onset of winter, the shafts should be at least pencil thick. Tip: If the bed is still occupied, you can also put the winter onions like cucumbers in pots and later simply put them in the soil together with potted bales.

Poke onions

Onion pests have a relatively short culture time, but variety selection is limited


In the case of picking onions in spring, be sure to wait until no late frosts threaten. The last cultivation period for winter onions is the beginning of October. All onion sets - from the spring onion to the shallot to the winter onion - are set at a distance of about ten centimeters in the row and keep a row spacing of about 20 centimeters. The onions are pushed so deep into the ground that they are just covered.


Whether it is sown, planted or preferred: Weeding weeds is one of the most important nurturing tasks, especially during the youth stage. As soon as the stem thickens, the need for water increases: Therefore, do not forget to water your water not only during summer growing, but also on sunny autumn days. Onions destined for storage are no longer watered two weeks before harvest to fully ripen. An additional fertilizer in the summer is not prohibited, but not essential. Onions are quite frugal and usually get along with the nutrients that comes to them in the spring incorporated into the soil compost. For winter onions you should have a fleece ready when the temperatures are clearly below zero degrees at the end of the season. If the frost is below five degrees, the bed is covered for safety. A light protection with fir-spruce also prevents the leaves from drying up in the cold east wind.

Harvest and storage

The right time to harvest stock bulbs has come when the leaves turn over and turn yellow and the leaf roots dry up. The folding of the foliage, which is often practiced in many gardens, does not accelerate maturation and makes sense only in exceptional cases. On nutrient-rich soils or in persistent wet weather the plants form many leaves and become very high - in such cases one may help a little bit. Despite thorough drying, the onions forced to mature contain more water and are less storable.

In dry summer weather, leave the harvested onions on the bed for a few days to allow the peel to dry. Alternatively, you can braid the yellowed foliage and hang the onions in an air-dry and rain-protected, not too cool place to dry. Do not store the stored onions in the refrigerator, because the cold stimulus will soon cause them to start again. The longest stay in a bright, dry attic or in a not too warm boiler room at temperatures around 15 degrees.

Diseases and pests

One of the most common pests is the onion fly, whose larvae live in the storage tissue and render the onion useless. Although it can be fought off by a mixed culture with carrots, a reliable protection, however, are only vegetable protection nets.

Video Board: Onion.

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