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Do you remember the huge orchards of your childhood? In many places there are still orchards in rural areas to this day. In the past, they were often cultivated at the village borders. How nice if you can pick some fresh delicious apples while driving by. But orchards are also habitats of numerous animals and insects. In this respect, in addition to the annual harvest, they also make a good contribution to an intact nature.
Create a meadow orchard - costs and effort
The effort to create a meadow orchard is enormous at first. But careful planning and the many efforts pay off. They are well rewarded with an annual harvest over several decades and lots of other crops used elsewhere.
The costs are calculated individually and depend primarily on the size of the system. There are costs for:
- The purchase of the trees, you can expect about 25 to 35 EUR per tree
- possibly workers preparing the installation, e.g. Straighten the land and dig out planting holes
- the irrigation in the first time
- additional work material such as fences, tying pens for the fruit trees, knitting or protection against theft
Use state subsidies!
For the creation of large orchards meadows give individual federal states and financial support that you can take. Here, up to 70% of the total costs incurred for materials and trees are taken over. An application for the promotion of a meadow orchard is available from the Landschaftspflegeverband. Another option is the initiative "Greater green through rural development", which is only possible in rural areas outside urban areas. Nevertheless, even up to 100% of the costs are covered here.
Trees must be resilient to disease
Plan the selection of your trees well. Generally, you need strong varieties that are primarily resistant to disease and bristling with wind and weather. Here also the soil condition in relation to the variety has to be considered.
- Apple trees should be less prone to mildew, fire blight, tree or bark cancer, scab and collar rot.
- Pear trees, which are robust against the dreaded pear grid, you should choose preferably. Even bacterial blight and scab can be problematic in the long run for the trees and their expected harvest.
- Stone fruit trees such as plums, plums, mirabelles and cherries often suffer from monilia and rubber flow. In the plum varieties robustness against Scharka is advantageous.
As in the landscape-also, you should not plant a meadow orchard in a monoculture. The name says it already tangible: Here grow fruits. In this respect, a successful mixture of apples, pears, different plum varieties and cherries is preferable. When choosing, look for the harvest month and shelf life for apples and pears. Here you can already lay an excellent basis for a rich harvest from the early summer months into autumn. The storable varieties can then be stored into the winter and provide your family regularly with fresh fruit.
Mow twice a year or find natural paths
The meadow itself needs regular care and has to be mowed twice a year. Do not underestimate this time expenditure. Depending on size and location, considerable amounts of crops are required. You have the option to use this yourself or, for example, to give to adjacent farms with animals. But you should also clarify these dates in advance.
Alternatively, you have the option of grazing your own sheep or grazing foreign animals for a fee. Also, find out if there is a beekeeper in the area who is interested in settling his bee colony on your orchard. In this case, however, you should make sure that the meadow is not accessible to every guest.
A well-planned orchard in your own garden on a small area, but also large plants are in any case a gain for humans and nature. We wish you much success!
Tips for care
All well-aerated, deep soils are ideal for a meadow orchard, as these soils provide the fruit with sufficient nutrients. Basically fruit trees do not tolerate waterlogging, which can be quickly recognized by the fact that rushes grow at the affected areas.
The individual trees have different demands on the location. That is, plums, e.g. It is best to plant them in moist areas, and the cherries are most likely to thrive in very shallow and dry areas.
The compatibility between the different varieties of one and the same fruit is very variable. There are, for example, apple varieties that can not cope with an altitude of more than 300 meters, while other varieties tolerate the climate up to 700 meters above sea level.
Generally, fruit trees need a lot of light and good ventilation, as a stagnant air favors fungal infections. For these reasons, shady areas are rather unsuitable.
The best season for planting is on frost-free days from fall to spring. Often the space requirement of fruit trees is underestimated. To ensure good ventilation, the planting distance should be at least 10 meters. The trees should be planted in strict rows and in a uniform grid, which simplifies the subsequent care.
The tree is placed in the planting hole so that the finishing point is one hand wide over the terrain surface. If the planting hole is filled with tree and soil, the connection to the piles takes place for stabilization. Bite protection is only necessary if the orchard is to be grazed later.
In the first few years, the soil around the trunk should be kept as free as possible, in addition to the annual parenting. Since the trees are not very well rooted, they get so more nutrients.