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It is clear that no palm can survive our normal Central European winter without protection. Which protective measures are necessary depends on the palm species.
What is important, if you want to cultivate a palm tree outdoors?
First of all, it is necessary to distinguish whether the palm is cultivated in the vessel or whether it is to be planted out. Young palms are better in the bucket. You should not spend the winter outdoors. Better is, they are several years old. In older, robust species you can dare the planting out, but there is a lot to consider.
Tip: In addition, the selection is crucial. The best plant for planting is a palm that has been grown outdoors. A softened greenhouse palm tree does not make the winter. So it makes sense to buy from a specialist who knows exactly about the origin and rearing. Although these palm trees are sometimes a few euros more expensive, the advice of these professionals is priceless.
Palm trees like the sun. Of course it is easy to place a bucket always in the sunniest place. It is important, after the winter in the house, the plants slowly get used to the sun, otherwise there are unsightly burns on the leaves. Young palms do not belong in the bright sun. Morning and evening sun are no problem. Planting does not make sense in every region. Where the winters are very cold and long, one should confine oneself to bucket keeping. In areas with rather mild winters, the chance of the palms surviving the cold season is far greater.
- Important is a sheltered, warm location, if possible before a heat radiating wall.
- City gardens often offer warmer temperatures than those in the countryside
- Even on the coast, the winters are often just warmer.
- The best conditions are offered by the winegrowing regions, with their mostly mild winters.
For the culture in the planter is potted soil. Even better is palm soil directly from the expert. The financial overhead often pays off. When planted specimens should be used loose, well-drained and deep soil. The roots just have to be able to grow through. The earth should be able to hold some water, but not too much and too long. Loamy soils and very sandy ones need to be improved.
- Palm or container potting soil, preferably with pumice or lava granules loosened up
- Permeable and profound earth
- pH between 6.0 and 7.0
In the case of tub culture, it is advisable to install a drainage in the bottom of the pot. Otherwise, the pot size is important. It should not be too big, because then all the power goes into the root growth, but not too small, that the roots feel cramped. They have to be able to spread. When specimens are planted, think about whether you would like to install a floor heating while planting. This has advantages and disadvantages. Detailed information at //palmen-hof.de/Palmenheizung.html. The best time for planting is from March to June, so that the palm has enough time and light until winter to form roots and settle in well. Otherwise, the planting hole must be big enough. Here, too, drainage is good here, at least on solid ground. The excavation should be mixed with compost. Then water well and continue to make sure that the soil is neither too wet nor too dry.
- Important is drainage
- Possibly. Install heater
Especially freshly planted palm trees must be sufficiently poured, but you should not drown them. The earth must always dry sufficiently between the waterings, but not dry out. In the further culture it depends on the type and variety of the palm tree. Some need more, others less water. It is recommended to deal with "his" palm species.
- Each type of palm has different demands on the casting quantity
- Fertilizing during the growing season
Young potted plants are best kept indoors at 10° C and bright. Little is poured, but the plant should not dry out. It does not work. Older potted plants can overwinter outdoors, but need a sheltered location. In addition, the vessels must be well packed. But you do that only when really minus temperatures are announced, so that the plants can harden. Zwischen person person person? Person person? Person person person person? Person person zwischen person person person person person person person person? Person zwischen? Zwischen personts zwischen person person zwischen person person zwischen person? Zwischen personts zwischen person zwischen? Zwischen personts zwischen person person? Zwischen? ?Ts zwischen??? Person? Person???It is best to place the buckets on polystyrene plates, so that the cold does not come from below. Also, the leaves should be packed, with a thick fleece, not with Babbelfolie. The fronds are tied up and then wrapped. If the temperatures rise, you better remove the fleece so that the palms can breathe deeply. This prevents fungal attack. If the cold persists for a long time, you can consider adding the bucket or providing more heat. A light hose that is wrapped around the plant can help a lot, it does not have to be a palm tree heater. Planted palm trees need a protective layer in the root area. This can consist of leaves, mulch, straw or protective mats. A heater is really only necessary in cold areas or if someone really wants to play it safe. The trunk is to be wrapped because it is sensitive. This is only done when it freezes. The fronds are protected as in the potted plants. Unpack the trunk and fronds when the weather permits. The floor should not be too wet, but it should not dry out. More is in principle not possible.
Chinese hemp palm (Trachycarpus fortunei)
This hemp palm is the classic among winter hardy. It comes from the Himalayas and is one of the coldest resistant species ever. They tolerate depending on the region down to -17° C and require little winter protection. It is found everywhere in the Mediterranean and in the south of Europe. Female palms can develop seedling, which also mature, but only under favorable conditions.
- Up to 12 m high, but not in our climate
- Here it will be a maximum of 4 m
- fan palm
- Slender stem, densely covered with fibers
- Long-stemmed big leaves
- Star-shaped fronds
- Pretty high water requirement
- Fertilize every 3 weeks (growing season)
- It is important to protect the vegetation point of the palm from moisture in winter.
- Female plants grow more slowly than males.
This hemp palm is probably even more robust and compact than the Chinese style. In addition, it has smaller, darker, finer and wind resistant leaves that are rather stiff and leathery. Young plants have a bonsai character. The winter hardiness is given down to -20° C, now and then also lower. The hard leaves do not bend as quickly in wind as those of the Chinese hemp palm, and they are better able to cope with snow.
- Comes from the mountains of Asia
- Growth height 4 to 5 m
- Sometimes annual growth of 30 to 50 cm
- Requires plenty of water in the growing season - no permanent wet
- In winter let the substrate dry to 2/3
- Fertilize every 3 weeks (growing season)
- Forgives care mistakes
- Resistant to almost all diseases and pests
The jelly palm comes from South America. The special thing about her is that she has both male and female inflorescences, so no palm needed for fertilization. This is of course cheap. The hardiness is lower, about -10° C. Jelly palms are particularly decorative, as they have overhanging, quite tender and long fronds (up to 2.50 m). They differ so clearly from the hemp palms, which look rather robust.
- Will be 6 to 7 m high
- But stay much smaller with us
- Planting e.g. in the Rhine Valley or on the North Sea coast
- Grow very slowly because they need to over 20° C and that are given outdoors in quite a few days
- Petioles with thorns
- Numerous inflorescences
- Different growth forms
The dwarf palm also comes from rather warm countries, from the Mediterranean area. It gets along well with very high, but also quite low temperatures, down to - 12° C. Characteristic is the compact, multi-stemmed growth. The small, powerful fronds are less wind-prone. With a little luck, the palm will even flower and then fruit. It has cream to slightly yellowish flowers and brownish fruits. The dwarf palm is the only palm tree native to Europe.
- Up to 5 m high, with us smaller, rarely over 3 m
- Grows slowly
- Requires little water
- Has difficulty with too much wetness, especially in winter
- Very uncomplicated in the attitude
- Forgive short-term dryness
- Bedorn petioles
This palm is very decorative, but grows really slowly. It can grow up to 3 to 7 meters in the bucket, higher in the field. The leaflets reach lengths up to 5 m, but only in adult specimens, after more than 50 years, then when the palm is also sexually mature. The Chilean honey palm can withstand temperatures down to -12° C. Striking of her is the gray, massive trunk. The fruits are similar to coconuts.
- Tribe forms only from about 15 years
- Short-stemmed pinnate leaves
- Like a sheltered place
- The heart of the palm must be dry so that it can tolerate frost.
- That's why roofing makes sense in winter.
- Grows very slowly, only 1 to 3 leaf fronds per year
- Only with rooting is it a little faster
A palm tree in the garden, on the terrace or on the balcony always looks, at least a healthy one. Important is the selection of the right species. Site conditions and casting and fertilising behavior must be right, then the palms will thrive well. Hibernation is sometimes a problem. The palms need to be protected, this can be done in different ways. It is best to buy a hardy palm tree from a specialist and to be well advised on how to care for it and winter it. That is always helpful.