The Content Of The Article: The passive house is the further development of the low energy house. Without the traditional use of a heater, this design provides a comfortable room temperature throughout the year. This low energy requirement makes it very environmentally friendly.
This standard can be used in any type of house. Schools, kindergartens, factories and supermarkets have already been built with this standard. Through the use of heat-insulating windows and insulated window frames, good tightness of the building envelope, avoidance of thermal bridges, passive houses are exceptionally well insulated heat.
Often the air is already preheated by a geothermal heat carrier. A heat exchanger transfers the heat from the exhaust air to the fresh air supplied. A good quality in the execution as well as an expert planning become indispensable here. Above all, large windows to the south side were to be used to allow the house to benefit from passive heat gains. Unobstructed view to the sun or an orientation to the south side are not absolutely necessary, even main facades to the north have already been realized. Here, however, must be better insulated, they should reach the standard of a passive house.
Rooftop collectors can take over the water heating and thus contribute additional energy. The heating support by solar energy makes little sense here, as in such a building only
from December to February heating is needed. A passive house can dispense with a conventional heating, the heated one supplied via the ventilation system
Fresh air is enough. For this purpose, only a small power is needed, such as heat pump, pellet heating, natural gas heating, stove, etc., but they may also be equipped with other heat dissipation systems.
If one decides for the construction of a passive house, more quality assurance measures than with a normal house construction must be considered. The prevention of thermal bridges and the actual energy requirement can be checked in advance in an energy balance during the planning phase. A passive house is not necessarily more expensive than a conventionally built house. One expects about 8% higher production costs. Passive houses were built but also at lower prices than conventional new buildings. With higher costs for a passive house rather special requests and an upscale equipment play a role.
Looking at the profitability of a passive house with a dynamic amortization calculation, a saving of approx. 50,000 euros can be seen over the course of approx. 20 years. Low-energy and passive houses are being subsidized by the Förderbank (construction, housing, energy saving) through a low-interest loan and interest-subsidized loans of EUR 50,000 each per dwelling unit. In addition, there are many federal funding programs.