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Laying paving is not necessarily just a job for professionals. With the right tools, the right material and a professional instruction, even a good home improvement is able to pave his driveway, patio or garden paths. There are only a few important points to consider.
Planning of paving
Before you can start the actual paving, you should be aware of how high the future paving area should be at maximum load. Of these, in addition to the selection of paving stones or slabs, the substructure, the so-called foundation affected. Of course, the choice of paving stones also depends on the price range in which you want to shop and how high the burden will be. It is not recommended to design a garage entrance with ceramic plates.
The planning also includes the provision of the required tools. To carry out plaster work, you need:
- a vibrating plate with rubber pad
- a flex or wet cutting machine
- an Alulatte or a straight wooden board
- a shovel
- a rubber mallet
- a broom.
- Paving stones or slabs
- the frost protection layer for the substructure
- edging stones
- Gravel or gravel as bedding material
- Sand for the joints
Dig foundation for paving
Excavation for the foundation depends on the soil condition and the load-bearing capacity of the surface coating. Another role is played by the material of the base course. In the area of the excavation, the edge attachment must not be forgotten. For footpaths z. B. in the garden and terraces reaches an excavation of about 20 cm below the finished upper class. Garage entrances should be excavated at least 30 cm deep.
Shattered soil, as often found in new buildings, is just as unsuitable for paving as it is for rain and wet soaked ground. If necessary, it must be dug deeper or the soil compacted with a cement mixture to improve its load-bearing capacity.
Installation of frost protection layer
Before installing the frost protection layer, the edge fixing must be installed. These include lawn edging stones made of natural stone or concrete, large paving stones or palisades. The border fixing is placed in cement, which is pulled higher on the back. Each stone is knocked into the concrete layer with a rubber mallet. To get a straight line, you should tighten a mason's string.
After curing of the concrete of the border then the antifreeze layer can be introduced. For this you should bring gravel or gravel with a grain size of 0 to 32 mm about 20 to 30 cm thick. In order to avoid that the layer settles later, it must be compacted with a vibrating plate. For drainage, the entire surface should have a slight incline in the desired drainage direction. This inclination must also get the substructure, so that infiltrating water can also run off. It is already necessary to work very neatly with this base course in order to prevent any later slippage of the base course, which would result in shifting of the upper deck and possible tripping hazards.
From the embedding layer to the joints
As a bedding layer, the camp for the paving is called. This question also raises the question of the type of patch. In normal composite paving, it consists at best of fine grit. Granite heads, large or small, are laid in sand.
- The 3 to 4 cm thick bedding layer is roughly applied with a shovel...
- ... and then pulled off with an aluminum bat or a straight board in the same inclination as the substructure.
- This layer should also be very clean and straight, the easier the laying of the stones.
- After removing, you should not enter the area!
- The pavement is laid with the slope of the slope, that is, you have to start at the highest point with the paving and follow the gradient.
- When paving the gap should be 2 to 3 mm and the paving stones need not be pressed into the bedding.
When laying the paving stones you should strictly adhere to the laying instructions of the manufacturer. If they allow it, you can also incorporate a pattern of your choice. Depending on the laying method, you will need half or cut stones at the edges. Here then the Flex or wet cutting machine is used. Please note when cutting the stones that they must be shorter by the joint width!
If the area is completely covered with stones, sweep sand into the joints with your broom again. Then the entire surface is shaken off with the vibrating plate. Here then the rubber pad is used. This prevents the paving stones from getting visible damage or traces of the metal plate.By shaking off the sand usually slips deeper into the joints. For this reason sand must be drilled again after shaking.
Possible mistakes when paving
To create a long-lasting plaster ceiling, you should avoid possible mistakes:
- The appropriate excavation according to the soil and a good antifreeze prevent sagging and shifting of the paving stones.
- Also, the inclination must be urgent so that infiltrating water can drain. Otherwise, in the cold season, the freezing moisture can lift the substructure and destroy the paved area.
- The edge boundary must be securely in concrete so that the frost protection layer and the bedding layer can not slip out to the side.
- Lay the pavement according to the manufacturer's instructions so that a compact surface is created. Grouting well means that the paving stones get a good hold in themselves.
- Shaking it with the rubber mat prevents damage to the paving stones.
Worth knowing about the laying of plaster soon
How many paving stones do I need?If you use the well-tried cobblestones, then you should plan about 70 to 90 stones per square meter way. If the stones are set very tight, up to a hundred stones may be needed.
Lay paving stones
When paving the stones are gradually placed in the sand bed. Each stone is solidified with the rubber hammer. You always work down the slope. You should make sure that all stones are at the same height and the joint width is 0.5 to 1.5 cm. Thinner joints are not necessary, but can be set. Larger joints, however, mean less stability for the way.
After you have made the first few meters, you turn in the way sand until all joints are filled. It should still remain sand on the pavement, because this is squeezed in the next step with water. You should be careful not to wash the sand out of the joints.
If the sand is trapped, is returned again. Then you attach the stones with a rammer. When the path is completely paved, the joints are re-squeezed with fine sand and water. Attention: Some patches, which are very sensitive, should be solidified with a pestle or a vibrating machine before they are silted up with sand and water, as otherwise sand could attack or get caught in the surface of the stones.
Filling the joints
To fill the joints, different types of sand can be used, always adapted to the material of the paving stones. With concrete block coverings, simple filler sand is sufficient. With clinker linings crushing sand is better. Even with natural stone crushing sand is used or special plaster joint mortar based on synthetic resin.
Tip from the editor
So that a garden path looks good and can last for many years, not only the paving is important, but above all the professional substructure. If the base layer is not properly seated, the pavement may shift. When individual paving stones stick out of the crowd, tripping hazards are inevitable. It is important that the ground is compacted properly, only so the surface can be evenly even.
Of importance is also the thickness of the gravel layer. If a car can drive on the garden path, it has to withstand more stress. A 20 cm thick layer is usually sufficient for a garden path, which is used only occasionally. Incidentally, a so-called mineral mixture can be better compact than pure gravel.
Selection of paving stones (materials)
You can choose between concrete block, natural stone and clinker:
- concrete blocks - comes in different colors, shapes, sizes and different surface structures. Especially recommended are the deceptively real-looking natural stone imitations. In the meantime, the color of the stones also keeps up, which was often not the case in the past. There are concrete paving stones from about 8 euros per square meter, but only the very simple. The Echtsteinimitate cost about 30 to 40 euros.
- natural stone - also in different colors, shapes and sizes. It is a natural material, which is important to many. The prices start at about 40 euros, but can also be significantly higher.
- Bricks and clinker - very popular, especially in northern Germany. Bricks usually light red and open-pored, quite soft and not very hardy. Clinkers are much more frost-resistant because their surface does not absorb water. Paving bricks are not the same size and can not be laid without joints.The variety of shapes is not that big either. The square meter costs from 15 euros. Depending on the color and appearance of the price but can also be up to 80 €.