Peanut


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origin

The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is from a botanical point of view, actually no nut, but belongs to the butterflies (Faboideae) and to the legume family (Fabaceae). Since their fruits ripening in the soil do not open, but remain closed, unlike those of the other butterfly plants, the fruits are generally referred to simply as nuts. The English name "peanut" ("pea nut"), however, refers more clearly to the relationship of peanut with the legume pea.
Originally the peanut comes from the South American Andean area, where it was cultivated as early as 2,000 BC. Today, they are widely cultivated, especially in Africa and the United States. But you can also easily cultivate them in the pot or in the bed at your home.

Appearance and growth

The peanut is a herbaceous growing annual that grows between 40 and 80 centimeters high and forms a taproot about 50 centimeters long. The foliage is paired pinnate and consists of four single leaves. The leaflets are entire and ovate. From May, the numerous golden yellow, about two centimeters long butterfly flowers show. They are in the leaf axils and are open only a few hours. During this time, they fertilize themselves and then wither.
The ovary with the ovules forms a fruit carrier that curves and pushes five inches deep into the ground. At the top of the fruit carrier, the fruits develop between July and September. This phenomenon is called "Geokarpie" or "Erdfr├╝chtigkeit". The two to five centimeter long fruits of the peanut are oblong-round and have a woody-brittle shell. They usually contain two (rarely only one, but a maximum of four) seeds of about one centimeter in length. They are surrounded by a bright red thin shell.

Butterfly blossoms of peanut plant

The golden yellow glowing butterfly blossoms of the peanut plant show up in May

Location and ground

The peanut prefers a sunny, warm location and loose, sandy substrate. It can also be cultivated in the pot. Then a well-drained mixture of potting soil, sand and clay granules is recommended.

sowing

The peanut is propagated by sowing. Although you can sow the seeds directly into the open air from June, it is better to prefer the plants in the house in a light and warm place (at a constant 22 to 25 degrees Celsius). Take untreated and unpeeled peanuts. If you let them swell overnight, they germinate better. Then place the pits about one centimeter deep in pots filled with potting soil. Under foil increases their germination. Keep the substrate moist and start germinating after about a week.

planting

About five to six weeks after sowing, the young plants are transferred to larger pots. From mid-May you can plant the peanut with a planting distance of 20 x 20 centimeters in a full sun bed with well-drained soil. Alternatively, the peanut plants can be cultivated in a large pot with about 20 to 30 centimeters in diameter on the warm wall of the house.

Peanut plant in the bed

The peanut can be grown both in the pot and in the bed

care Tips

Pour the peanut regularly, but make sure that the substrate is always slightly dry. Avoid waterlogging. Fertilizers are not necessary.

Peanut plants do not need a cut.

fertilization

The peanut fertilizes itself usually, only very rarely takes place a cross-pollination by insects.

Harvest and recovery

peanut harvest

Per plant about 20 to 30 peanuts are formed at the roots

proliferation

Peanuts can be multiplied by sowing (see seeding).

Diseases and pests

Compared to diseases and pests, the peanut plant has proven to be very robust. On cultural errors such as an excess of irrigation water or waterlogging, however, it reacts very sensitive and tends quickly to root rot.

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