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Pears taste delicious and are sweet. Many hobby gardeners therefore have a pear tree in the garden or plan to purchase one. But planting and care are not that easy. Pear trees are sensitive.
They need an ideal location and must be constantly monitored for diseases and pests.
It is favorable if the location is a bit shady. But the tree may not have too little sun, so the pears will not develop their full aroma. A warm, sheltered place is ideal. A deep soil is important. Manure fertilized soil is also suitable. To acidic plant substrate must be limed. If the soil is too moist, drainage will be good so that excess water can drain off.
The soil must be weed-free. The planting hole should be slightly larger than the root ball of the pear tree. In the hole a stake is put, which serves the pear tree as a support. The tree is just placed in the planting hole and the same depth as before. The roots spread something out. Damaged parts are carefully cut off with clean scissors. Now mother earth is filled and pressed again and again until the hole is well filled. At the end, the earth must be kicked properly. The pear tree is tied to the support post with a strap. It is important to water the tree well. Until it grows properly, it must be watered regularly.
In unfavorable locations one plants only selected, less sensitive pear varieties, which are well prepared especially against late frosts. It is important that all year round is mulched. It must be fertilized, since the nutrient requirement is high. Regular composting is recommended.
The first cut
The first cut will be from mid-February. One cuts the branches, at which the shoots for the pears develop, the Leitäste, on approximately a third of their length back. It is cut about 1 cm above an outwardly facing bud. The goal of the cut is a terraced pear tree. All branches, which do not serve the crown structure, are cut 1 cm above the crotch in the first year. Side branches are cut in half. The branches to these are cut back to 1 cm.
In summer, only the shoots grown this year are cut back to 10 cm in length. If the tree bears little or no fruit, the number of flowers should be reduced by cutting.
A regular cut promotes tree growth and flower bud. The center drive is cut back. He should extend the elongated side shoots by only about a scissor length. The tree must be raised to a broad crown. The crown diameter can be up to 8 meters and beyond. The main drives are shortened, pay attention to broad education! If necessary, the shoots must be stolen, tied down or weighted. The crowns have to be cut always flooded with light. If necessary, the crown can be relieved by thinning. In order to prevent an aging, from time to time a sharp cut is recommended.
In case of lack of space or for better garden design, pear trees can also be grown like creepers on a house wall, on a trellis. That does not bring much fruit, but looks good.
Pear trees are sensitive to numerous pests and diseases. The most common is the pear grid. It shows itself through orange spots on the leaves. There are no resistant pear trees yet. As a prevention you should not plant juniper species in the vicinity, these serve as an intermediate host. Heavy infestation requires elaborate spraying, which must be repeated several times. You do not have to do anything with low infestation.
- Pear Leaf Vacuum - This flea species winters as an insect in the bark. The eggs are placed in the shoot tips. The larvae excrete honeydew, from which develops river dew, which affects all parts of the plant. Infested must be cut off and destroyed. A bark coat reduces the possibility of wintering. Predator bugs decimate the flea stocks.
- Pear gallbladder - the maggots are boring into the fruit. To combat picking off fruit in June / July and destroy. If this is not possible, pick up and destroy fruits daily! Otherwise, maggots migrate into the soil, pupate and spin there, and in the spring the cycle begins again.
- Bormangel - occurs frequently. He shows himself through deformed and wrinkled fruits. The pulp is woody. Mostly the tree does not bloom or the leaves turn yellow and brittle. Shoot tips die off. For real mangle, sprinkle approximately 10 g borax per square meter and water vigorously.
- Fire blight - is notifiable. Is caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora.The pathogen usually establishes itself permanently if the appropriate climatic conditions are met and appropriate host plants are available. All affected parts of plants should be removed consistently. Plant protection products are not permitted.
- Monilia - is a mushroom that hibernates on the tree and in the spring, especially in rain and wind on the flower scars is spread. The fungus clogs the pathways of the branches, leaves and flowers turn brown. The fruits can also be attacked. The fungus is usually caused as a result of a violation of the pear tree. The fungus is controlled by copper compounds, which are forbidden in gardens.