The Content Of The Article:
- Appearance and growth
- Location and ground
- Planting (only with preculture)
- variety Tips
- Image gallery: Colorful paprika variety
- Severity level
- Diseases and pests
Botanically, there is no difference between peppers and hot peppers or chilli, as the English name for the mainly derived from South America game and breeding forms. And yet there are countless shapes, colors and, above all, severity! Common to all is their affiliation to the genus Capsicum and the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Whether sweet peppers or hot peppers: Most of the types available here are Spanish pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum).
Appearance and growth
Depending on the variety, paprika fruits turn green and then turn yellow, orange or red. Mature peppers are more aromatic and higher in nutritional value than green fruits. Their content of vitamin C is outnumbered by any other vegetable species. The peppers, together with melons and the closely related eggplant, are among the most vulnerable types of vegetables. In the open air, a warm, sheltered location and a summer full of sunshine will also bring a useful harvest - but only if both factors come together. In the greenhouse, however, there are ideal conditions. Paprika prefers a temperature range of 25 to 28 degrees Celsius; In addition, the greenhouse should be aired regularly. The claims are very similar to those of tomatoes - just a little warmer may be like it.
Paprika (Capsisum annuum) 'Hunor F1'
Location and ground
If young plants are grown by themselves, this should be done in low-nutrient potting so that the plantlets develop a strong root system. If it should show after the Pikieren that the seedlings still have weak root system, leave them still in nutrient-poor soil, to further stimulate the growth of the roots. If a strong root system has formed, the paprika plantlets can also tolerate more abundant soil such as potting soil and fertilizer. The location for seedlings should get plenty of light, so that the plantlets do not hurry. In the field, the peppers also like sunny and warm. But make sure that the plants get enough water.
Whether yellow or purple, whether small tongue burners or large mild-sweet fruits: In cultivation, all types of peppers are the same. Peppers, together with eggplant, are among the warmest types of vegetables, so growing outdoors is worthwhile only in very warm regions and in a favorable microclimate, for example in front of a warm south wall. The cultivation in the greenhouse or film tunnel is possible everywhere in Germany and substantially more secure. If you do not want to buy ready-grown sweet peppers, the cultivation starts with sowing in March.
The seeds are spread evenly in a planting dish filled with sprouting soil and thinly covered with soil. The seeds should be placed about twice as deep as they are big. However, there are varieties that germinate only in the light, but these are rather exceptional. Now carefully press the earth with a small board. After thorough casting, cover the bowl with a transparent hood and set it bright and warm as possible: The ideal germination temperature is 25 degrees Celsius. About four weeks after sowing the young peppers are piqued in small pots and cultivated bright and warm at the highest possible humidity. Tip: If you sow the seeds in so-called multi-pot plates or quickpot plates (one seed per potty), pecking into larger pots is easier because each pepper plant already has a small root ball.
Planting (only with preculture)
From the end of April, put your peppers in an unheated greenhouse or after the icy saints (11th to 15th May) in the most sunny possible bed in the garden with loose, humus rich soil. The soil should first be supplied with compost and horn meal. The planting distance is 40 to 50 centimeters in the row and at least 60 centimeters between the rows. For outdoor planting, it is recommended to cover the soil with black mulch foil and to plant the peppers in small slits. The film keeps the moisture in the ground and ensures that it heats up well. A third possibility is the planting on the terrace or the balcony in the largest possible flower tubs. Use commercially available vegetable soil as a substrate and place the pots under a roof overhang to protect the peppers from rain.
Paprika grow much slower than tomatoes and stay much smaller. Nevertheless, you should already plant the seedlings with a bamboo rod as a support and fix it with loose twine or the like. So make sure that the plants do not buckle even in windy conditions.Feed your pepper every 14 days with a small amount of liquid fertilizer in the irrigation water or between two mid-June and the end of August with an organic vegetable fertilizer. Stinging nettle is also very suitable as additional fertilizer. The water requirement of peppers is very high, so you should water every day in the greenhouse and on the terrace in summer. In the greenhouse culture, you can also mulch the soil with grass clippings to reduce evaporation. A small but effective intervention is the breaking of the so-called royal flower in the large-fruited varieties of peppers. It forms in the crotch between the main drive and the first side drive. This stimulates leaf and shoot growth and results in higher fruit yield.
Peppers love a sunny location, but also need plenty of water
The most common cause, when many peppers, but rarely fruit, is a poor fertilization. The plants are so-called wind pollinators. At high humidity (over 80 to 85 percent), the pollen sticks and does not detach from the stamens. Then the recommended shaking does not help, but you have to help with the brush and transfer the pollen by hand. If the humidity drops below 60 percent and at the same time the temperatures rise above 25 degrees Celsius, the fruit rests are also repelled. In this case, moisten the soil vigorously in the morning.
In the greenhouse you can harvest the first green peppers from mid-July. The first fully colored fruits are ready for harvest from the end of the month under good lighting conditions. In the outdoor or pot culture, the harvest usually begins three to four weeks later. Depending on the weather in the greenhouse, the harvest period does not end until the end of October or the beginning of November, because the fruit barely grows at temperatures below 17 degrees Celsius. Tip: It is best to cut the ripe peppers with a sharp knife or a pair of scissors, so as not to damage the shoots and the remaining fruits.
Medium hot peppers (Capsisum annuum) 'Kekova'
All varieties of peppers are generally perennial, but overwintering is only possible in the heated greenhouse or conservatory. The further culture is especially worthwhile for slowly growing ornamental peppers such as piri-piri or bell chillies.
Over the millennia-long history of peppers have developed from the original form countless varieties and even today, new varieties are regularly bred, including exceptional varieties such as the refined bell peppers 'Bellania' with their black fruits, the small refined red snack peppers or the suitable for the hanging boat snack-paprika 'Delipap', which also has a high ornamental value. The wealth of variants here is almost endless and the decision of which variety is planted on the home balcony, kitchen window, conservatory or greenhouse is not that easy.
Chilies (Capsicum frutescens) are native to South America and have an eventful history of cultivation over some 6,000 years. In Europe, they became known only after the discovery of the Americas by the Spaniards and the first established trade routes. The easy-to-cultivate plant in Europe broke the very lucrative trade in pepper that was hitherto very lucrative and made pork in court affordable for the masses. The fruits of the plant are berry fruits, which are about one and a half to three inches long. The shape is pointed cone-shaped, but can also be as thick as the classic peppers, depending on the variety. The fruits are green during the maturity phase and when they reach maturity (variety-specific) are usually bright red. This makes it easy to recognize the right state of maturity. The fruits stand upright on the bush and are not thrown off the plant. As with the other Capsicum plants are numerous yellow to light brown colored and flat flattened seeds in the fruits. What makes the plant and its fruits so exciting for us is capsaicin. The substance is responsible for the sharpness of the chillies and can occur with varying degrees of concentration depending on the variety and location. He is particularly concentrated in the partitions of the fruits. The sharpness of the fruits and sauces made from them is measured in Scoville.
Well-known varieties of chilli include: 'Jalapeno', 'Beni Highland', 'Ecuadorian Brown' or 'Habanero Amarillo'
Good to see here: the upright growth of the chilli fruit and the discoloration of the ripe fruit to a bright red, while still higher immature chillies are to be seen
Pepperoni (spiced paprika)
The hot pepper is probably the most flavorful variety among the Capsicum plants. It comes from the classic pepper, but is tapering in the shape of their fruits. It probably originated in Asia and found its way through the conquest of the Turks in the 16th century to Europe. In terms of color, it has the same color spectrum as the peppers, depending on the variety.The real distinguishing feature is in the taste: Here, the pepper offers a wide range of very mild, mild, mild-spicy to spicy. For this reason, it is also dried on a large scale to paprika powder and all its variants processed.
Known hot peppers are for example: 'Thai Yellow', 'Georgia White Pepper' or the elephant's trunk (C. annuum)
Image gallery: Colorful paprika variety
Start photo gallery
Colorful paprika variety
Paprika 'Palladio F1' is very aromatic. The bright yellow fruit is recommended as grilled vegetables or for filling
Paprika 'Mavras F1' stands out due to its violet color. It is a classic vegetable pepper for the field and the greenhouse. The block-shaped peppers have a pleasant mild taste
The fruits of the paprika variety 'Artis F1' grow up to 22 centimeters long. It is a smooth and beautiful fruit that quickly grows from green to red. It is curved and pleasantly mild - typical of "Corne di Torro" (in English "bullhorn") - varieties
Paprika 'Ice Age F1' is a new breed with fresh-fruity aroma. With increasing maturity, the color of the fleshy fruit changes to orange-red. The variety is also suitable for the bucket on the terrace
Paprika 'Agio F1' ripens in flaming colors from yellow-green to orange-red. The plants are not only very productive, but also very decorative with their pointed colored fruits. The early variety is resistant to the tomato mosaic virus
Jalapeno Paprika 'Jalastar F1' is good for Mexican recipes like Chili con Carne. The small fruits are very spicy, but do not "burn". The early ripening new breeding can also be cultivated in our latitude straight at sheltered sites in the field
Paprika 'Ariane F1' is a mild vegetable paprika. The thick-meaty, juicy variety is productive and very robust
Cayenne Paprika 'Diavolo F1' is one of the slender and long varieties. The very sharp fruits have a high spiciness, in the dried state they are used for spicy chilli powder
Paprika 'Pritavit F1' looks like beef tomatoes. The extra thick-walled fruits are used in many ways. They are suitable for grilling, for salads, for loading or filling
Paprika 'Sumher F1' comes from Turkey. The strong-aromatic taste is appreciated by gourmets. Harvested green, the spirally twisted fruits are milder. They are suitable for inserting, filling or raw food
Paprika 'Neusiedler Ideal' is an old, high-yielding breed from Austria with large fruits that turn crimson when ripe. It is also suitable for outdoor culture in warm regions
The hot pepper variety 'Starflame' has yellow fruits and is nice and spicy
Ornamental paprika is usually Capsicum frutescens, a shrubby and low-growing species with pretty, upright, frond-shaped fruits. These are also edible; however, if these varieties are sold as an ornamental plant (as indicated on the label), treatment with plant protection products which are not authorized in the case of vegetables intended for human consumption is permitted. If you use ornamental peppers yourself from seeds, there is no such danger and you can decide whether you want to use the pretty pods in the kitchen.
On a sunny balcony, small snack peppers are excellent potted plants
The pungency of the pods is given in the unit Scoville and varies from species to variety. It can even fluctuate quite considerably between the fruits of one and the same plant. Guaranteed fire-safe (0 Scoville) is sweet peppers, because all varieties lack the teaser capsaicin. The sweet cherry paprika, which is also used to make sweet paprika powder, is already on the sharpening scale at 2. The hottest chilies are the red 'Bhut Jolokia' from India and the South Carolina bred Carolina Reaper. Both should be treated with caution, since Scoville values beyond two million have already been measured here. For comparison: Tabasco sauce is between 2,500 and 5,000 and pepper spray for self-defense at 180,000 to 300,000 Scoville.
Chilies and hot peppers are dried great kitchen spices - if you work in moderation!
The pure pulp of paprika and chili peppers contains less capsaicin than the so-called placenta, the white inner tissue of the fruits to which the kernels also adhere. For spicy peppers, therefore, you should carefully remove the placenta and seeds during preparation. Healthy, the sun-ripened pods are still: Alone by their considerable content of vitamin C, beta carotene and other valuable plant substances, they are many domestic vegetables in the shade. And the sharpness has a good thing, because high capsaicin levels have a disinfecting effect. Therefore, in many tropical and subtropical countries, food is traditionally spiced much more sharply than in the temperate zone.
The sowing of peppers takes place like with tomatoes.Unlike peppers, hot peppers are usually sort-proof and can easily be self-propagated.
Diseases and pests
If the young plants are kept too cool, aphids occasionally appear. In summer, aphid infestation is favored by too narrow stand, too strong fertilization and lack of light. Rinsing the leaves with water is usually sufficient as a countermeasure. At the first appearance of the white fly, yellow sheets should be hung nearby. Too high humidity can cause gray mold. Timely airing prevents this fungal disease. Occasionally similar diseases occur as with the closely related tomatoes.