Pests and diseases on fruit trees

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Root head, Mauke
Symptoms: This disease caused by soil bacteria causes bile-like growths on the roots and on the root neck, more rarely on the stem base.
The pathogen invades injuries.
Initially, the growths are soft and smooth, later they are dark brown and lignified. They can grow more than fist-sized. Especially young woody plants are strongly inhibited in growth, but often recover when they get older. On the vine the disease is known as Mauke. Here, the growths occur mainly at the treatment site and also affect other plants strong growth and yield.
Infested plants: All fruits, especially apple, pear, raspberry, cherry and plum and wine.
Combat: Thoroughly improve heavy, wet soils before planting fruit trees. In processed plants, the disease can be prevented by choosing less susceptible substrates. If the plants care a lot, it is better to remove them than hoping for a recovery, but do not plant new trees in the same place.
Trunks and branches
Galena disease
Symptoms: Leaf-like, brown-violet mushroom fruit bodies grow in the lower area of ​​the trunk. More striking are the leaves, which turn silvery to lead gray upon budding. Fruits usually fall out completely, as the flowers already wither away. The wood fungus infects trunks and branches over wounds and can destroy the whole tree. It attacks not only all tree fruits but also berry fruits.
Infested plants: especially apples and pears
Combat: Prevent bark injuries, for example: also with a white coating that prevents frost cracks. Always cut frayed cuts cleanly, spread all larger wounds with wound sealant, and avoid unnecessary stumps. Generously cut out affected areas into healthy wood, flatten the edges of the edges with a smooth knife, and treat the interface with a wound sealant. Do not put infected parts on the compost.
Symptoms: On stems and shoots show white, cotton-like deposits, under which sometimes the red-brown, about 2 mm large lice are recognizable. On the bark, cancerous growths form, which later tear up like a knot. Neutraries above such locations do not mature properly. These damages cause the blood lice, which suck from young shoots or over cracks in the bark vegetable juice. The pests can reproduce asexually, so a louse can have more than 100 offspring, which then overwinter at sheltered sites of the tree bark. Warm and humid weather promotes the proliferation of the blood lice.
Infested plants: apple
Combat: Watch for low-susceptible apple varieties and rootstocks. Encourage beneficial insects such as ladybirds, earwigs, hoverflies and birds that consume the blood lice. Spray off the woolly white surface with a sharp jet of water and use beneficial insecticides in case of heavy infestation. Carefully cut out the growths and treat the areas with a wound sealant. In the winter, clean the trunk with a wire brush or tree scraper to remove the lice from their hideouts in the bark.
Symptoms: On stems and shoots, light or brownish, viscous drops emerge, which harden to rubbery lumps. It is a physiological disorder in response to various negative environmental influences. The young wood is in a sense "liquefied". This can kill entire branches of the branches. Triggers for the rubber flow are usually injuries to the bark.
Infested plants: stone fruit trees, especially cherries and peach.
Combat: Trees are particularly vulnerable to heavy, damp or misted soils as well as to frosty places. Proper site selection and thorough soil tillage or, if necessary, soil improvement are therefore among the most important precautions. Even a balanced, nitrogen-reduced fertilizer reduces the risk. Also, avoid unnecessary bark injuries. Larger cutting measures are best done only in the summer, when the wounds heal faster. Spread all slightly larger cut surfaces with a wound sealant. When pruning on endangered trees, cut first, unlike otherwise, on short stubs. If necessary, they are sacrificed to the rubber flow and then removed the next year directly at the branching point. Otherwise, cut rubber flows down deep into the healthy wood and carefully handle the interface with wound sealant.
Symptoms: In the beginning, affected bark spots discolor rather unobtrusively, and one recognizes sunken spots.Then the bark ruptures, forming red spore beds and finally cancerous growths, with time surrounded by ring-like bulges. Often, fruits are also affected and lazy later in the camp. Individual branches or the whole trees can die off completely. The harmful fungus occurs especially in rainy areas. He penetrates over cuts, stumps, frost cracks and other bark injuries in the wood.
Infested plants: especially apples and pears.
Combat: Prevent bark injuries, for example by using a white paint that prevents frost cracks. Always cut frayed cuts cleanly, spread all larger wounds with wound sealant, and avoid unnecessary stumps. Generously cut out affected areas into healthy wood, flatten the edges of the edges with a sharp knife, and treat the interface with a wound sealant. Do not put infected parts on the compost.
Pear rust
Symptoms: from early summer, orange-red patches appear on the upper surfaces of the leaves that increase in size. During the summer, the tuberous yellow-brown spore beds of the mushroom with lattice-like openings form on the undersides of the leaves.
Infested plants: pear
Control: The most important precaution is to plant no sweet-tree or other juniper species at least 200 meters away from pear trees. The pollinating fungus hibernates on these coniferous trees and then transfers to the pears by wind or rain in the spring. In spring, when shoots of juniper plants in your garden swell markedly and carry gelatinous, orange-yellow shapes, remove these branches immediately, they shelter the new fungal spores. Otherwise, it is usually sufficient to remove affected pear leaves early to prevent noticeable damage. Fungicides against pear scab have also a side effect against pear grate.
Symptoms. On fruit trees different green, black, gray or brown aphids appear. The green peach aphid, despite its name, can attack almost all fruit trees, while, for example, apple aphids, also green or floury gray, only suck on apple trees. The damage caused by aphids, however, are similar in all plants: the leaves curl and curl up, turn yellow and finally fall off, the shoot tips or even the flowers and fruits are deformed. The pests are usually in dense colonies on young shoot tips or leaf undersides. Often the leaves are covered with sticky honeydew, on which blackish dew-throats settle.
The lice are particularly dangerous due to the transmission of pathogenic viruses.
Infested plants: Almost all fruit plants
Combat: Promote natural enemies of aphids, such as lacewings, ladybirds and earwigs. Use only beneficial agent pesticides. Place glue rings around the trunks so that the aphid-supporting ants can not crawl up. Spray the lice again and again with a strong jet of water, or simply wipe them off in easily accessible places with a tissue. Very severely affected shoots are best cut out. Nettle extracts have proven themselves as home-made sprays.
Symptoms: On the underside of the leaves, red bile form, which harbor the eggs and yellowish larvae, and bright nodules develop at the roots. The vine takes care and can completely die off.
Infested plants: grapevine
Combat: Only plant grafts that have been grafted on rain-resistant substrates. For example, if you have a suspected infection in a self-propagated vine, notify the local phytosanitary department.
The occurrence of the pest, which used to destroy whole vineyards, is notifiable.
codling moth
Symptoms: Fruits ripen prematurely and fall off the tree. The flesh or core casing is traversed by feeding passages, and the culprit usually recognizable: the approximately 2 cm large, reddish caterpillar of the codling moth, a small, brownish moth. The caterpillars are also known as apple or fruit maggots. The holes through which they drilled into the fruit are marked by tiny dark brown, crumbly excrement. When the time comes for pupation, the caterpillars leave the fruits and look for a quiet place under the tree bark. From mid-May the females lay their eggs on leaves and young fruits. In warm weather, they fly again from the end of July. The second generation of caterpillars particularly damages the harvest.
Infested plants: apple
Combat: Useful precautions and aids are corrugated and attractant trap belts. For biological control, there is a special granulosis virus, which can be applied like a normal spray.If you clean the bark in the winter with a brush and a tree scraper, you will catch quite a few caterpillars after one infestation year. Remove infested fruit, even immediately lying on the floor.
Symptoms: The small, brown weevil often shows itself in late spring through holes in the leaves and stalked flower stalks. The females lay their eggs individually in young fruits. The yellowish-white larvae eat the nuts inside and leave them in late summer, leaving a large hole. They hibernate in the ground.
Infested plants: hazelnut
Combat: Tap the shoots regularly in April and May, preferably early in the morning, when the beetles are still sluggish. If you hold white paper underneath, you will easily detect an infestation. At the same time you can collect the beetles in this way and dispose of them with the paper. Remove affected fruit early.
Symptoms: Infested fruit can rupture and are often deformed. Typical are brown-gray, slightly recessed, scurfy, cork-like spots, which feel harder than the rest of the fruit. Even leaves can be infected and then have velvety, brownish spots. In addition, especially with the pear the bark of young shoots often tears open. With heavy infestation with this fungal disease more branches die from the top.
Infested plants: apple and pear
Combat: Preventively select low-susceptible varieties and keep the crown airy by regular cutting. Remove fallen fruit, leaves and cut debris on the ground, otherwise they could serve as sources of new infections. Fungicides, for example based on sulfur, can be used against scab.

Video Board: Common Fruit Tree Diseases.

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