Plum tree from A to Z: Planting, care and cutting


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Plum tree from A to Z: Planting, care and cutting: tree

Sweet, aromatic and healthy: Anyone who has ever tasted plums from our own vineyards, will not then be satisfied with goods from the supermarket. The trees can be easily grown and cultivated, if the appropriate location selected and paid attention to a suitable substrate. Only hobby gardeners should pay attention to diseases and pests. With a good care, waiting in late summer and autumn, then a rich harvest of popular fruits.

Location and ground

Plums need enough heat to develop aromatic fruits. For this reason, the fruit trees feel particularly comfortable in a warm, sunny spot; already partially shaded layers can significantly affect fruit development. In order for the plant to thrive optimally, the appropriate substrate is additionally necessary. The plum tree grows best if the soil used has the following properties:
  • rich in nutrients
  • sufficiently moist
  • sandy-loamy composition
  • good through ventilation
Note: If there is a rather nutrient-poor garden soil, the deficit can also be compensated with the help of annual composting. In addition, the optimum moisture of the soil plays a significant role in the good growth of the plum tree; Although the substrate should tend to contain a lot of moisture and never dry out, even waterlogging can cause problems. Therefore, it is important to ensure a sufficient flow.

Pouring and fertilizing

Targeted irrigation and careful fertilization are important prerequisites for a high-yield crop in addition to the optimal location. Above all, trees that have been freshly planted require a lot of water in the beginning, until the roots have formed well. Following usually does not have to be cast specifically provided that the plum tree is located in an area with an average frequency of precipitation. However, prolonged droughts in summer require additional irrigation in these areas as well. Especially suitable for casting:
  • rainwater
  • pond water
  • stale water from the pipe
Fertilization is especially important for the plum tree at an early age. Targeted administration of nutrients via fertilizer, which should be spent once a year, works best. When casting and fertilizing, the strain of plum should be checked in between times and again; the fruit tree tends to increased moss and lichens. To counter this trend specifically, a regular master maintenance is necessary, which is performed by a brushing with a wire brush.

plants

plum

Basically, the hobby gardener distinguishes between three different types of plum trees:
  • high-born,
  • semirigid and
  • low-seeded varieties.
The smaller the plum tree, the sooner it will bear fruit later. The disadvantage: these variants have a shorter life than varieties with a larger growth. The choice of variety should therefore be carefully considered. But no matter which variant the hobby gardener decides: The planting time is always the same; From autumn until spring it is possible to plant the plant in the garden. Before planting, the roots and shoots of the tree should first be trimmed to facilitate growth.
Then the planting hole is dug, which should be slightly wider than the root ball and as deep that the roots disappear almost entirely in the substrate. After planting the young trees must be carefully poured. A wooden stake as additional support has also proven itself; For this purpose, a strong wooden stick is stuck in the ground, to which one binds the tree. So he is exposed in the first time less stormy winds.

multiply

Plums can be easily multiplied; This works best with the help of the fruit kernel. Anyone who opens the bowl with a hammer quickly gets to the core, which is then stored in the freezer for three to four days. In this way cracking is considerably simplified. With the help of the exposed core, the plant sprouts faster.
Then the core is planted:
  • For growing a small flowerpot is sufficient.
  • Suitable substrate is a mixture of garden soil and potting soil (50:50)
  • The plum core is covered with two centimeters of soil.
  • At consistently low temperatures, the nuclei germinate within eight weeks.
Tip: It has been proven to use garden soil for cultivation, which already comes from the future location.
In the growing phase, the temperatures should be between 5 and 10° C; If propagation takes place in this way in the cold season, a sheltered place in the garden should be sought for this purpose. During the summer months it is necessary to put the flowerpot in the fridge for two weeks.An alternative method of cultivation consists of cultivating the core on kitchen crepe. For this purpose, a total of five pieces of wet paper are stacked on top of each other, on which one then places the core. In this way winter conditions are simulated. Once the first seedlings are visible, the move can be made in the flowerpot.
Who starts the multiplication in winter, can already look forward to a small seedling in early spring. This must then be supplied with plenty of light and a constantly moist soil. After no more frost is expected, the plantlet moves to its future location. Young plants also need winter protection during the cold season - especially when the tree is not in a protected location. Garden fleece, for example, is suitable for this purpose.

To cut

Plum trees need to be cut for various reasons:
  • education section
  • income section
  • Care cut (Auslichten)
If you want to cut your plum tree, you should choose the optimal time for this. Basically, the wood is cut after harvest. A possible cutting time represents the late autumn; however, care must be taken that the pruning is not done immediately before the onset of a frosty period. There must still be enough time for the cut surfaces to dry out before freezing. Otherwise there is a risk that the branches will freeze. Alternatively, the plum tree can be cut in early spring once the frost-free period has been initiated.

plums


Young plum trees initially receive an upbringing cut, but this should only be done two years after planting the tree. In this case, a possible horizontal growth of the crown branches is initiated so that the naturally vertically upwardly growing branches do not stand in the way of each other over time. Only a single vertical central drive is left on the tree. If the tree finally grows in the correct form, only the care cut of the annual care cut is to be carried out. You should keep the crown as light as possible. All branches are removed that grow too narrow, inwards or steeply vertically. Also dry and down-hanging branches are to be removed.
When cutting itself, the hobby gardener observes the following aspects:
  • The cut is made from outside to inside.
  • Sharp cutting tool is used for cutting.
  • Root shoots that form on the trunk must be removed.
  • Interfaces should be sealed with wound closure paste.

Harvest and process plums

In the period between July and October, the fruits on the plum trees are ripe. It has proven to be the right time to harvest; the experienced hobby gardener recognizes a ripe plum on the color, which should be deep blue. It should be noted that not all fruits are ripe at the same time, as they receive different amounts of sun. This means that normally more crops are to be scheduled.
Small plum trees are harvested by hand picking the fruits. If larger quantities of plums are caught, they can also be shaken off the tree.
The best tastes of the freshly picked fruit pure. In addition, however, also offers the further processing; For example, cakes or marmalades can be made from the blue-violet fruits. Also for freezing is the fruit; but then the plums must be cut in half and pitted beforehand. Another way of preserving is to cook.

Diseases and pests

Plum - Prunus domestica

Some plum varieties are particularly susceptible to diseases and pests. A classic disease is the pocket disease, which is easily recognizable because of its typical damage pattern:
  • Fruits grow banana-shaped
  • on the fruits a light green coating forms
  • The surface later turns gray floury
  • Fruits remain hard and inedible
Especially in rainy weather, the disease can develop, which can be controlled only by completely removing the affected parts of the plant. Another typical disease is the plum rust, which can be recognized by the black dots on the underside of the leaves and the yellowing of the leaves. The Monilia fruit rot, however, presents itself as a white pustule on the plum and ensures a black color of the fruit. Also in this case, only the complete removal of all affected parts of the plant helps.
The most common pests that can attack plum trees include plum moths and aphids. Both should be combated in time with the help of a mild pesticide. However, those who cultivate their plum tree optimally will seldom have to contend with diseases and pests. A careful care ensures a healthy growth of the tree - and many delicious plums, with which the hobby gardener can sweeten the summer and fall.

Video Board: How to grow peach, plum and nectarine from cuttings (Part 1)..

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