Maintain plum tree properly - varieties, plants and diseases


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Plum - Prunus domestica

The plum tree, Prunus domestica, is a species of the genus Prunus, from the rose family (Rosaceae). The species Prunus domestica includes all the fruits that give rise to conversations every year, such as: "What is the difference between a plum and a plum?" Where resourceful contemporaries at this point like a few Renekloden and Mirabellen einwerfen. First of all only so much, there are differences, but all these subspecies belong to the plant species plum and make about the same demands on their care.

Location

When talking about "easy care", it is important to note in advance that the more perfectly the site is adapted to its conditions, the easier it will be to maintain a plum tree. Plums love the warmth, after all, the ancestors come from the Near East and have penetrated across the Mediterranean to Central Europe.
Windy and frosty places do not like the plum tree. The best location is sunny, south facing and sheltered from the wind, like in front of a wall, hedge or wall. At the site, it should be noted that this area is not particularly exposed to late or early frost. Locally in the garden are all places to avoid, which are particularly high or low. Because the plum tree tolerates neither dryness nor waterlogging.

Substrate & soil

With an adequate soil quality for the plum tree, one already has good health care and ensures a rich harvest. If the garden floor at the planned location is loamy and compacted, one will not be able to condone the soil there generously and mix it according to his requirements with compost, sand and clay. In extreme cases, a drainage must be installed. For although the plum tree may be damp, it does not tolerate waterlogging.
The soil should ideally show the following qualities:
  • nutritious
  • humus rich (ability to store water, not to jam)
  • calcareous
  • Mixture of: garden soil, compost, some clay and sand

to water

This chapter is a pretty short one. Because the demands for additional watering are very low. An exception is the first year after the tree has been planted.
Of course, the plum tree makes in the course of his life again and again extreme weather conditions. For example, especially hot and dry summers or long periods without rain, then it is necessary to pour.
The best are plenty of water in the evening. Rainwater or stagnant tap water is best suited for this purpose. It does not matter if you take the water hose from time to time. But as soon as the soil on the surface shows chalky, white spots, it means action. The best way to remove the top layer is to mix it up with soil rich in humus.

Fertilize

Even when fertilizing, the plum tree is quite undemanding. Only with verifiable nutrient-poor garden soil can you help with fertilizer or compost. The following fertilizers are well suited:
  • Liquid fertilizer for fruit trees
  • well-matured compost (biological)
  • Manure, stable manure (biological)
  • moderate dose of cornmeal

Plum tree - Leaves - Prunus domestica

Young trees tolerate a fertilizer supply every year. After the fifth year, fertilization is enough every two years. Especially on too much nitrogen, the tree reacts sensitively. This can be seen by a fast shoot growth. Leaves and flowers are less stable and the tree becomes more susceptible to disease.
For a balanced moisture balance mulching in the spring is a good measure. On this occasion, he also gets a few extra natural nutrients.
Tip: If the plum tree is on the lawn, be careful with lawn fertilization, to save the area of ​​the bottom disc. These fertilizers are very nitrogenous and have a negative effect on the plum tree.

To cut

If you want a beautiful crown and a rich harvest for your plum tree, you will not miss a regular cut. Only the first year after planting is omitted on a cut.
Basically, it is better to cut it gently every year than to make a radical cut every few years. As with all fruit trees, the best time to cut is late autumn or early spring.
With sharp, clean tools, it goes to work:
  • dead, withered, injured branches
  • criss-crossing branches (crown clear)
  • outer shape of the crown, round-oval, harmonious
  • Leading sprockets that go off to one side shorten by one third
On this occasion you can also treat the tribe a little care. A rough, barky and mossy stem is then thoroughly worked with a wire brush. Then, as a further protection against pests, you wear a ring of lime or a special tree color.
Tip: If you want your plum tree to be bushy, like a shrub, you can stand soil sprouts. But not more than five or six.

plants

If the appropriate plum species for the garden has been found and the location is fixed, it goes to planting. The best planting time is the late autumn. Although it is always said that one can plant container goods throughout the year, but also for the fall time is the best planting time. Until the spring, the offspring have time to train their roots.
A radius of about one meter fifty around the tree should first be cleared. On this occasion you can upgrade the soil quality, depending on the deficit with compost, manure or gravel.
Dig out a suitably deep planting hole and insert the small tree. Only so deep that the refining point looks out a few inches above the ground. If the plant is still very young, it is best given at the same time with a support post on the side in the ground. So the roots are not damaged.
After inserting the excavation back into it. It is advantageous to previously mix this soil with compost to promote growth. With a slight shake up and shake the cavities are filled and finally the earth started carefully. Against dehydration, it is recommended to mulch the tree disk around.
Then put the small plum tree under water properly. Also throughout the first year pouring regularly, pervasive. The substrate must not be permanently damp. The roots need an incentive to root deep into the soil. Keep the site free of weeds and other plants especially around the first year (radius 1-1.5 m).

proliferation

Those who like to experiment in the garden can try to multiply their plum tree. That works through
  • Sowing the seeds
  • Propagation by shoots
  • finishing
The latter option is more apt for particularly green thumbs. But anyone can dare to multiply by a nucleus or instinct.
The plum core is cleaned and lightly cracked. The plum is a cold germ. A small potty with potting soil and the core spends the cold winter outside or comes in the fridge for a few weeks. Then slowly get used to light and heat and wait tensely for the first cotyledons.

Plum - buds


For the propagation of the fungus, it is enough to occasionally circle the tree and dig up the natural shoots that come out of the ground on their own. Then it is best to put it into a bucket first. The bigger and more undamaged the roots, the better. Keep fresh shoots moist, fertilize and protect from cold and wind.

sorts

It pays to deal with the different varieties before buying a plum tree. Important criteria, besides optics and tasty fruits, should be the different demands, the robustness and the type of fertilization. If you have a small garden with room for only one plum tree, you should use it in a self-pollinating way. Basically, plum trees are foreign pollinators and the yield of these species is higher than that of self-pollinators.
In advance, a brief explanation of the differences between plums, plums and co seems to be helpful. The Plum Prunus, Prunus domestica is a species of the genus Prunus, with over 200 species. The plum is a hybrid of the blackthorn and the cherry plum. From it developed seven well-known subspecies, which often cause name confusion:

plums

Plums are usually smooth, large and round with a furrow. The pulp is juicy, sweet and often difficult to separate from the stone. They are available in the colors blue, red, purple to almost completely black.

plums

Plums are dark blue, violet coated with a ripe, white coating. They are slightly smaller and more oval than plums. The pulp is firmer and drier, the kernel is easily dissolved.

Greengage

There are two varieties here. The genuine Edelpflaume and the Reneklode. The Renekloden, also ringless, are spherical, mostly greenish yellow and quite sweet. The Real Edelpflaume is also spherical and not so sweet. They are available in different shades of red and blue.

Creeping plum

The small spherical fruits of the creeping plum, also oat plum, are offered for fresh consumption. Occasionally it is used for oil production and as a basis for fruit brandies. The tree itself is often planted as a hedge or used as a refining base for noble plum species.

Zibarte

The Zibarte is a small tree with small, round, mostly black fruits that look like sloe. They are mainly processed for fruit brandies.

Mirabelle

The fruits are small, spherical and yellow. The pulp dissolves easily from the stone and is very sweet. Also mirabelle plums are grown for the most part for the production of the same name fires.

Spilling

The Spilling, Spille or Katharinenpflaume grows mainly in the south of Europe. The fruits are similar in taste to the mirabelle.They are usually bright orange, round and have a high fructose content.

Plum - Prunus domestica - collage


Those who plant a plum as a sweetgrow for the garden, will usually opt for a variety from the varieties of plum or plum. The largest variety is the plum, they are by far the most popular plums. Among the plum species, there is only one that is resistant to sharka.
Some varieties with the main features briefly presented:
  • 'Tophit': plum; big fruit; low susceptibility to disease
  • 'Haganta': plum; sweet, big fruits; low susceptibility to disease
  • 'Queen Victoria': especially large fruits;
  • Ontariopflaume: self-fertilized; hardly Sharka prone; big, yellow fruits.
  • Great Green Reneclaude: high quality Reneklode; usually green-yellow, very sweet and juicy; FremdbestĂ€uber
  • 'Hanita': plum; rich income; hardly susceptible to illness; robust; Cross between 'President' and 'Auerbacher'
  • 'Katinka': plum; high quality, sweet fruits
  • 'Tegera': plum; big fruits; self-pollinating; precocious, great yield
  • 'Jojo': plum; resistant to sharka; Selbstbefruchter

Diseases & pests

Even if the plum tree is considered to be relatively robust, from diseases and pests it is sometimes not spared. Providing it with favorable and healthy conditions, with an ideal location, good soil quality and optimal water and fertilizer inputs, has already halved the risk. Even a regular thorough inspection can usually avert the greatest damage.

plum fruit

An infestation with the plum moth larvae can be recognized by small holes in the fruit. The best protection is to make the garden as attractive as possible for natural predators, such as songbirds and droolies. With pheromone traps, the winder can be captured and thus reduce their number.

Monilia mushroom

An infestation with the Monilia mushroom can be seen once on the dry tips of the branches and later on the rotting fruits. Fungal diseases can be effectively controlled only with fungicides. In the initial stage, it is still enough to radically remove the affected parts of the plant and destroy them.

PflaumensÀgewespe

The larvae of the plum weed cause considerable damage through their feeding to the ovary. Later, the fruits are filled with the feces, they fall off immature. The larvae overwinter in the soil around the tree. There is currently no effective protection against the plum weed. The stock can be white glue boards, which one hangs shortly before flowering in the tree. Infested fruit must be collected and destroyed.

plum rust

The spores of this fungus infect the leaves of the plum tree in May. On the underside of the leaf there are brown spores. By the end of summer, they spread over the whole tree, the fallen leaves fall off. Plum rust occurs especially in humid, rainy summers. Only a treatment with appropriate fungicides helps against a strong infestation.

Sharka disease

The Scharka disease is a viral disease. In the spring one recognizes a possible infestation on light green rings on the leaves, the tissue dies off. The fruits get pockartige notches, the pulp discolored and becomes rubbery. The plums drop off prematurely. In this case, one can only hope that the plum tree will never be attacked by this virus because it is a dangerous and reportable disease. It can then be made a requirement to completely remove the tree and destroy it.
Conclusion
If you want to enrich your garden with a fruit tree, you can choose a subspecies of Prunus domestica, depending on your taste. If the available space is not enough for several species, the newer varieties are recommended. The self-pollinated species also bring it as a "single tree" to a handsome fruit stand. Many new species are also quite robust and forgive not so perfect conditions.

Video Board: How to Prune a Plum Tree.

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