Pond heater to build yourself - instructions

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An advantage for all owners of swimming ponds is that they can be used much earlier than those without heating, bearing in mind that pond heaters use a lot of energy, depending on the size of course.
What are the operating principles for pond heaters?
Connection to central heating

  • Disconnect hot water from the heating circuit of the house.
  • Transfer the energy to the pond water returning from the filter via heat exchangers
  • Take pond heating into consideration when building the heating system
  • Alternatively retrofit heating
Boiler with heat exchanger
  • Similar to central heating
  • Works with heat exchanger
  • Can be operated by the boiler even further away from the house
Electric water heater
  • Simplest version
  • Direct the water from the pond filter directly through the water heater and warm it up
  • Easy to retrofit
  • Only for small heating capacities
  • Mostly as a frost guard in medium-sized ponds
Heating tapes
  • Can be laid in the pond as you like
  • Temperature sensor measures water temperature
  • Connection via RCCB
  • Not for use in swimming ponds
  • Per 10,000 liters of pond volume 10 m heating tape
  • To keep ponds ice-free
  • Different cable lengths and wattages
  • For small to medium sized ponds
heat pump
  • Expensive in the purchase
  • High power consumption
Is a pond heater useful?
Of course, those who have expensive fish in their pond want them to get through the winter well. Pond heating can be useful if some conditions are met. For large and even deep ponds the effort usually pays off. In order to increase the temperature there, too much electricity is necessary. The whole thing would be too expensive. Also, the geological situation must not be forgotten. A pond in the mountains is not comparable to one in the mild Rhine-Main area. In order not to consume too much energy to heat a pond and maintain this temperature, it is important that the pond is well insulated.
Pond heating is particularly useful if the pond is not deep. These waters freeze to the bottom in winter. A survival of the fish is not possible, not even the native ones. Although there are Eisfreihalter, but also help only limited. In addition, you can save with the heating his Kois catching, moving and the cramped hibernation in the basement. You can stay in the pond at comfortable temperatures. This saves a lot of stress.
It makes sense to have a pond heater, if the water should only be kept constant at 4 to 6° C. So the fish survive the winter well and without stress. This is especially important when the filter systems go through the winter. However, those who want to prevent the fish from falling into a winter stare need significantly higher temperatures, at least 12° C. Below that, digestion works very poorly. If you own Kois and you want them to grow in the cold season, you have to ensure temperatures between 16 and 26° C (to survive much lower temperatures). There must be plenty of heating. However, this only makes sense if the Koibecken is well insulated. At high temperatures, there are enormous heat losses. Even with well-insulated pools, a lot of energy is lost through the open water surface. The heat losses are higher, the higher the temperature difference between water and air or soil.
  • Useful if pond is well insulated
  • At low ponds
  • Not useful in every place
  • Convenient if the water is to be kept at a constant temperature
  • The easiest 4 to 6° C, which is enough to survive
  • 12° C, then fish without winter rigidity
  • 16° C and more for Kois, which should continue to grow
  • Kois also survive at 5° C, but do not grow
How should a pond heater be dimensioned?
Of course, the pond heating must correspond to the pond, the desired temperatures and the pond insulation. Many factors must be included in such a calculation, e.g. also wind speeds, outside temperatures, pond surface, pond volume, temperature difference between ambient air and to the underground and much more. Many of the values ​​are variable, can only be assumed theoretically. In the calculations of professionals, it has been proven to assume a value of about 125 watts of power per square meter of pond surface, if the temperature is to be kept constant at 5° C. It is important that the pond is well insulated. The result, ie the actual calorific value, is usually below the theoretical calculations. In stark temperature differences, a pond cover makes sense, which prevents too much energy from being blown into the air.
Build pond heater yourself
Sure, a pond heater can be built by yourself. With 220V and water is not fun. Therefore, only those who experiment with it should understand it. Otherwise, I can only advise to give it to a specialist in the hands.The simplest solution for heating is provided by heating cables. With them it is only important if they are operated with 12 V or 220 V. At 12 V, an additional transformer is needed. However, a car battery does it too. Of course, heating cables to 220 V are easier and without additional equipment. The cables are simply placed in the water. All you have to do is plug the heating cables into the socket.
  • Heating cable simple solution
  • Put in the pond and plug into the socket
  • Best laid out in loops
  • Only for smaller ponds
With a proper pond heater with heat exchanger, it is of course important that the heater is placed close to the pond. The further the way to the pond, the more the water cools down. Also a pump with filter sponge in the housing and a pump basket outside should be used. The basket protects against leaves and dirt that can settle around the heating element. The output of the pump should not exceed 6,000 liters per hour. The pond heater is connected to the pond pump. The pump pulls the water out of the pond, through the heater and back into the pond. Since in winter hardly algae formation is to be expected, no filter must be interposed. The filter pump is sufficient to keep the coarsest particles out. At the end of the pond heater, a knob is installed. Over this the temperature can be adjusted and regulated.
  • Place heater with heat exchanger close to the pond
  • Pump with filter sponge and pump basket
  • Not more than 6,000 liters per hour of power
  • Connect to pond pump
  • Do not interpose a filter
  • Regulate with separate regulator
For professionals, there are sophisticated pond heaters that would blow up the frame here. Detailed instructions can be found on the net, also in numerous forums on Koihaltung. For most garden pond owners it is enough if their pond does not freeze and keeps temperatures between 4 and 6° C.
A pond heater can be useful, depending on what you want to achieve. For the normal garden pond are often already enough shower stones, so he does not freeze. If you want to keep the water temperature constant, a pond heater can help. It is important to seek advice from a specialist. Helpful is a good insulation of the pond, sometimes, at very low minus temperatures, a pond cover. With all the love for his fish, the electricity costs must not be forgotten. It must be considered whether it is worth warming up his Koi pond in winter to 20° C, just so that the fish do not stop the growth. Kois survive even at 5° C. Otherwise, a pond heating can help, so that the pond is not fully or completely frozen. A sensor that measures the temperature in the water switches the heating on and off when needed. That makes sense.

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