The Content Of The Article:
Pruning is important for the health of the grapevine and for the subsequent grape harvest, as it must be raised and raised to provide a rich crop. Grape vines are extremely cut tolerant and do not mind mistakes in the cut, but the roots must not be separated. In addition, should not be cut too hesitant, minor cuts are not appropriate here. If grapevines are not pruned, they will grow unchecked, grow quickly, and produce only a small number of inferior grapes.
BasicsIn the German winegrowing areas, vines are grown for a rich grape harvest, while hobby gardeners rather appreciate the decorative value of the vines. Regardless of the motive of the cultivation they need a specific pruning, so that the optics and the yield are right. For the pruning the current temperatures must be correct, so that there is no damage. If the climate in the growing region is frostier and the grape variety is extremely sensitive, crop later. In this way, frost damage from the previous winter can be better recognized and subsequently corrected. The following aspects should be considered when growing and cutting vines:
- Grape vines belong to the plant family of Vitaceae
- Wine is a high-climbing shrub, sprout vines reach heights of 10 meters and more
- Branches are brown-yellow to red-brown colored
- Flowering period from June to August, with a delicate scent
- Vine already sets the flower buds in the previous year
- spherical fruits, either sweet or sour flavor
- Deciduous leaves are heart-shaped to roundish
- In autumn, the foliage shines with brightly colored colors
- hardy and perennial plant
- Grapevines need all year round and distributed various care cuts
- Adjust cutting times to growth processes
- perform basic pruning for shaping in the foliage-free time
- Ideal times for pruning are in late autumn to February-March
- Temperature values must not be below -5° C when pruning
- ideal are frost-free and dry days
- one-year-old wood is fruit wood, on this grow new grapes
- perennial or even old wood is used for the stick construction
shapeIn the form there are different ways to design the vines, this is to adapt to the site conditions and personal preferences. The various forms are of varying difficulty in their implementation and suitable for either beginners or advanced wine growers. The following cut is well suited for hobby gardeners:
- beginner-suitable form for grape vines is the Fächerspalier
- Combination of horizontal and oblique cordon arms, which branch out several times
- Fan education fills a lot of space and has high ornamental value
- Do not set the number of thighs and branches too high
- maintain sufficient distance, about 0.5-1.0 meters
- Rankspalier helps with the correct shaping of the shoots
- in the first year of life just let the vine grow
- Initiate and build young grapevine at the beginning, then prune it
- For new plants first grow a strong shoot long and straight
- Main shoot then forms the trunk of the vine
- ideally, a kind of skeleton can be recognized in the vine
- at the future main trunk remove all side shoots
- uncommonly important is a clean and extremely sharp cutting tool
- Disinfect and sharpen the tool in advance
- Cut off fruit wood as close to the old wood as possible
- stand behind the last bud small stub of 1-2 cm
- Stub prevents the drying of the underlying bud
- Always make the cut at an angle
- Do not unnecessarily squeeze and injure shoots, otherwise it will bleed
In the springA pruning in early spring promotes the balance between the growth of the vine and the subsequent fruitfulness. This cut is also called winter cut and is an important process in the life cycle of a grapevine. With a little preparation and an initially cautious approach, can be achieved in the pruning quickly first successes:
- Pruning vines in spring from February to March, this is the annual main cut
- the stronger the pruning, the greater the growth of the stick
- recognize the wood from the previous year, these are all shoots grown in the previous year
- previous shoots are usually yellow-brown, ocher or red-brown
- early-year-shoots have buds at intervals of 5-15 cm, while scratching these are green inside
- Carry out the first rough cut, shortening all thin shoots of previous shoots to about 4-6 buds
- Locate and mark suitable buds
- About 15-20 eyes per square meter should remain on the surface
- make a second rough cut, cut off all shoots marked as unsuitable
- thicker shoots can be cut away to the main trunk
- in a radical cut up to 90% of the branches can be removed
- last fine cut of the remaining shoots
- in the lower part stub with only 2-3 buds leave, so-called cones
- In the upper area such shoots with 4-6 buds, so-called Strecker
In the autumn
- in the late autumn cut off all ripe grapes
- Check ripeness beforehand, some need some more sun for a few days
- Remove all rods that do not carry grapes
- Shorten the bearing rods so that a maximum of four leaves remain on the shoot
- also cut off any overhanging and overgrown shoots
The pruning of the grapevines is extremely important and to carry out annually, this is easy to handle and the cut compatible plant forgives even gross beginner mistakes. If not only leaves are to grow, but also grapes, then some cutting measures over the year are essential. This promotes the health and growth of the vine and its grapes, lignified and unsightly rods have no chance to develop. It is crucial to choose a forest-free and climatically pleasant day for pruning, so that the vines can recover quickly after the cut.
useful informationOne way to shape his grapevine is the fan-fold. This shape is well suited for beginners. Because of the ease of handling, the fan education of the vine is widespread. It is a combination of horizontal and oblique cordon arms, which branch out several times. So a lot of space is filled. The number of thighs and branches must not be too high. There must be enough space between them, about 0.5 to 1.0 meters.
- In the first year, the plant is simply allowed to grow.
- At the end of the second winter you cut back the vine to three mature shoots.
- Thus, the skeleton is loose and not too dense.
- These three shoots are loosely bent apart and attached to truss aids.
- The winter cut is made on eight to ten eyes.
- One leaves each arm about four buds for future shoots.
- At the ends remain one or two buds for the trunk extension.
- Unnecessary buds are broken.
- The shoots for the trunk extension are brought into shape over the summer and attached to the frame.
- All shoots are allowed to keep the grapes.
- In winter, the outer shoots for trunk extension are cut to eight to ten eyes and tied.
- The shoots, which are not needed for the extension, shortened to short pins with two eyes.
- At the shoots for the stem extension remain only one or two buds per shoot. The others are broken out.
- Those who can not cope with the vine cut can also get professional help.
- Nurseries, vines dealers and maybe even an experienced neighbor are usually happy to help, if you get stuck.