The Content Of The Article:
- Why is it important to cut a quince tree?
- How often should you circumcise the quince tree?
- When is the best time for a pruning?
- The most important types of pruning
- May I radically cut back a quince tree?
- Step-by-step instructions: How to clear the crown
- Step-by-step instructions: How to rejuvenate an old quince tree
Many fruit trees need an annual pruning in order to bear fruit. Not so the quince tree (Cydonia oblonga), which is content with a clearing of the crown. The ancient cultivated fruit grows very slowly, but with a tendency to dense growth. A rejuvenation cut is only necessary for very old, long uncut specimens.
Why is it important to cut a quince tree?A regular pruning as in the apple tree is not necessary for the quince. However, by nature, the tree tends to be higher in elevation than in width, and therefore has a tendency to form a dense crown. This in turn means that the shoots and leaves compete with each other for light, also wetness is very difficult to dry off again. Moisture, however, is a breeding ground for various fungal and bacterial diseases, such as the leaf tan frequently occurring in quinces. In addition, because the quince forms fruits only on two- to three-year-old shoots, a care cut contributes to the continuous rejuvenation.
How often should you circumcise the quince tree?Quince trees grow very slowly, which is why an annual pruning is counterproductive. Instead, seasoned gardeners advise thoroughly clearing the treetop every two to three years.
When is the best time for a pruning?The best time for the pruning is the early spring, usually between early to late March. The tree is not yet in full juice so early in the year, so that the risk of bleeding is low. In addition, the new growing season is just around the corner, during which he can drive out new. Be sure to cut only in mild weather. In freezing temperatures, the slightly brittle wood of the quince tends to splinter, in addition, can be caused by the freshly cut wood penetrating frost cold damage. Alternatively, a pruning in autumn, directly after the harvest of the last fruits possible.
Note: Even in summer, you sometimes have to resort to pruning shears: namely, if so-called Wasserschosser or water shoots (which are always an indication of a too strong pruning in the spring!), So these should be removed. However, do not cut them away, but tear them out carefully. Also from the padding driving saplings are cut away, as they rob the tree unnecessarily force.
The most important types of pruning
Each shape of the fruit tree has different effects, depending on what you want to achieve and how you perform each cut.
plant sectionSome fruit trees, for example, already need a pruning during planting, so that they can disperse even faster. This does not apply to quinces! A young quince tree is best left to grow completely alone for the first three to four years - until it is the first time that it has produced fruit. Then the time has come for a first pruning. Exception: Cut a young quince tree whenever it forms many very thin, criss-crossing shoots. These are to be cleared in the spring to bring the tree into the desired growth habit.
Care or maintenance cutThe so-called care or maintenance cut is used for the constant rejuvenation of the tree and thus counteracts a Verkleigung or Vergreisung. In doing so, remove all old shoots and branches (unless they are leading shoots), clear out the crown and cut off sick and dead wood. A care cut should be made in the quince tree every two to three years. When such a cut is actually necessary depends on the one hand on the individual growth of the tree and on the other hand on the respective weather conditions in spring and autumn. In unfavorable weather conditions - when it is cold or very rainy - you will be better off from any cutting measures.
Tip: Even if you first notice red spots on the leaves and later a brown coloration of them, you should immediately reach for the scissors. The dreaded leaf rot otherwise engages quickly and can also switch to the fruits.
education sectionAn educational cut is made to force a wood to a certain growth habit. You remove all shoots that grow outside the desired growth direction. In addition, other educational measures such as the attachment of weights, the wire (especially in bonsai) and the attachment of shoots and branches can be done. In young quinces, it is recommended to educate them by the measures described and, if necessary, by cutting into a broad crown. This is achieved as follows:
- select three to four strong leaders
- These should grow as horizontally as possible
- if necessary, bring with attached weights in the horizontal
- remove all other branches
- especially down and inside growing branches and shoots
- Make up the crown
In this way, a lot of sunlight gets into the upper, fruit-bearing areas of the quince. In addition, the wood and the foliage can dry faster after a downpour.
Tip: You can also raise a young quince tree very well on a trellis. To do this, as described above, tie the three to four selected leading drives to a trellis and regularly check the shoot - to correct it if necessary. New shoots are also attached to the trellis.
rejuvenation pruningA rejuvenation cut in turn is always carried out on old fruit trees that have not been circumcised for a long time and are accordingly verkahlt. Such unkempt trees tend to produce few or even no fruits, which - as the fruit-bearing wood is often rather thin and weak - cause the shoots to break. The rejuvenation of a tree is not done with a single cut, instead you have to resort to pruning shears over a period of three to four years. In addition, during the process the quince does not produce any or only few, inferior fruits. But the success from the third year is even more sustainable!
Tip: At best, do not let it get that far. Instead, cut your quince every two to three years as described in the care section and you will enjoy your tree for a long time.
May I radically cut back a quince tree?For some heavily wooded shrubs, it is recommended that they be cut off radically. From the remaining stump finally grows new wood and the tree is rejuvenated. To be radical in the quince is not advisable: Since the tree grows only very slowly, you would have to wait a long time in this case, until he has recovered. Nevertheless, a radical pruning can be useful in badly forgotten copies, which can not be saved otherwise.
A guide to a radical cut in the quince:
- never cut the trunk
- Quinces are often refined, then drives after the capping only the base
- instead, remove all twigs and shoots from the crown
- leave only three to four lead drives
- reduce this severely
- Remove all side shoots / saplings
When is the best time for such a Radikalschnitt, depends on the weather. You can do it both in autumn and in early spring, only frosty or rainy it may not be.
Step-by-step instructions: How to clear the crownWith a regular clearing of the crown and the timely removal of shoots (which are side shoots that drive out of the base) and water shoots (thin shoots shooting upwards) your quince tree remains young for a long time and bears many fruits. By the way, you recognize the young shoots by the fine fluff with which they are covered. Older people do not have this anymore, but turn black-brown with the years. Proceed as follows when cutting:
- Cut away deadwood and sick wood
- Cut away old shoots or shorten them considerably
- remove all water shoots and saplings
- inward growing and crossing shoots remove
- cut away too tight shoots
- pay attention to a uniform crown shape
- Too long, shorten thin shoots
Note: Contrary to the ever-recurring tip of especially older gardeners, according to the latest findings, cuts on woody plants should not be treated with a wound closure agent. A plaster of resin or tar often has the opposite effect than the hoped-for, especially since a healthy tree has sufficient self-healing powers. Much more important are the described hygiene measures as well as clean and sharp cutting tool.
Step-by-step instructions: How to rejuvenate an old quince treeThe rejuvenation of an old, old-fashioned quince tree usually takes two to three years, as you should not remove more than a third of the existing branches per pruning. Bear in mind that the root system has grown in the same way as the tree crown and that the subterranean tree parts also affected by the pruning die off - as a result the whole tree can be greatly weakened and no longer have the power to rejuvenate. You should only consider a radical cut if the alternative is to clear the tree.But now to the instructions for the rejuvenating pruning:
The first and second year
Make the cut in the fall or spring, whenever the weather is just the cheapest. Before you cut, first look at the tree in peace from a few meters away.
- determine a strong central drive
- remove competing center drives
- remove only two to three in very strong competitive drives
- the rest in the following year
- Remove branches with fruit tree cancer (recognizable by thick growths)
- Again, only two to three, if they are very thick
- Select three to four horizontally growing leaders
- if necessary shorten it slightly
- Remove competitive drives
- Remove deadwood and broken twigs