The Content Of The Article:
- The plant-ready raspberry
- The best time to plant
- Location, soil & preparation
- Space requirements and neighborhood
- Planting required?
- Plant raspberry properly
Planting a raspberry is one of the simpler tasks of this world ("earth up, raspberries in, earth to"), and yet there are a lot of details to consider if the result is to really satisfy. To satisfy you as a gardener, the raspberries grows too, if you omit one or the other. Only you annoy many years, when the raspberries z. B. so close that no harvest without wounds is possible or were planted without far too far apart, so that precious garden area was wasted...
The plant-ready raspberryAs a rule, you will get the raspberry plants ready for planting when purchased, which should look something like this:
- The optimum would be bale, in a similar soil as at the planting site and just "harvested"
- Rarely to get, maybe in the eco-garden, otherwise gardening friends
- Root-bare raspberry plants are sold with roots without soil in the carton
- The roots should be protected from dehydration with damp straw or the like
- Rootless goods can only be planted over a few weeks in spring and autumn
- It does not take much longer to grow and has a higher failure rate than bale or container goods
- For this raspberry was allowed to develop in the field to a robust plant with healthy roots
- Container raspberries are sold in pots and were also pulled up in pots
- You can just set so many roots that they can stand upright and take care of themselves
- "A root extra" to increase the resistance is usually no longer in it...
- Urgent careless container plant production produces plants with root damage such as rotation
- For container plants, be sure to get fresh raspberries with large root balls
- After purchase, the plants can remain in the open sales container for a few days in cool weather
- Roots then necessarily keep completely and thoroughly moist
Culture raspberries are very susceptible to viral diseases. Therefore, you should, before buying z. For example, visit the local Environmental Agency to see if there is a specific raspberry virus in excess in your area and ask for a one-year, guaranteed virus-free specimen at the nursery. To keep them virus-free, you should choose varieties that are known for good health and resilience and that are resistant to many pathogens. The summer raspberry 'Rubaca' is z. B. such a variety: Healthy growing, extremely high resistance to Phytophthora dying, insensitive to rod dying, other root diseases and botrytis (or you plant the original, resistant wild raspberries, see next tip).
The best time to plant
The best time for planting is the late autumn, because the raspberry can then rooted in peace over the winter, before in spring plant growth above the earth is required (which can now start after the "productive hibernation" with full force). Late autumn means for normal to friendly regions of Germany October to mid-December, in rugged areas with early frost hazard raspberries should already be set in October as a precaution (in harsh areas with many late frosts, the cultivation of raspberries is not recommended).
Bare root raspberries / bales can also be planted in spring when it has been freshly harvested and it is not too hot; In principle, container goods can be placed in the ground all year round, provided, of course, that there is always a frost-free weather and a non-frozen ground. However, even for container raspberries, plants have proved successful in the fall, because a full harvest in the following season is more satisfying than the "five raspberries", which are harvested in the planting season (with very early spring planting).
The best weather for planting is cloudy and gray, because freshly planted plants are subject to supply stress when they have to transport a lot of water into the leaves in warm weather.
Location, soil & preparationIn the wild, raspberries grow in or at the edge of the plant community, which is called "undergrowth" in the forest. In a good soil, in the protective slipstream of higher trees, in the light, but rarely "bothered" by the glaring sun. The closer the garden location is to the natural site, the better the raspberry plant will be able to develop its natural growth habit. The closer a plant is to natural growth, the better and, above all, healthier it will grow. Means in detail:
- Bright half shady to sunny location
- Without burning noon sun
- Ideally, especially at noon shaded by a higher wood
- That protects the raspberry plants from strong wind
- Evenly moist
- But well-drained
- Humus rich and nutritious
- Happy with a lot of clay
- Deep, so also under the top soil layer rich in organic matter
- Raspberries prefer slightly acidic soils with pH values between 5.5 - 6.5
- The soil can be prepared months before for the raspberries
- Excavate soil at the planned location
- Usually, "deep excavation" is recommended
- If that's enough, you should judge after reading the section on raspberry roots
- If there is compacted soil under the excavation, loosen it by piercing or tearing the plant hole bottom
- Rake up with the coarse rake until no more lumps are visible
- Generously mix soil with well-rotted compost
- The acidifying components of lime-rich soils such as parts of conifers or lots of coffee grounds should contain
- Also, some rock flour, so an extra dose of minerals and trace elements, is gladly accepted by the raspberries
- Refill raised soil
If the soil at the proposed site is still more like a dry sandy bottom, or is still too calcareous, despite some honest improvement efforts, you can still plant raspberries in this soil. In order to be successful with the raspberry culture, you have to compensate for the soil deficiencies through care, ie irrigate too dry soils and reduce too much lime content by acidifying mulch. If the location is still rather dark, you should probably plant wild raspberries better. They can cope with low light and almost all garden soils and may not produce a giant harvest, but one with a true, unique raspberry aroma.
Raspberries and their rootsRaspberries as flatroots from the top soil layer are said to pull their water and nutrients, but are planted in deep soil. It is even recommended that they be cultivated on earth ramparts, so that the roots never reach depths where they are exposed to waterlogging; a rather bizarre instruction, because thorough loosening of the uppermost ground layer is certainly quicker and easier to accomplish than building a loose earth wall that is strong enough to root through.
In any case, these instructions given in common Raspberry culture instructions do not match what the raspberry growers in the raspberry cultivation area of Langförden in Lower Saxony noticed already some 1.5 decades ago. In 2002, they took a closer look at how raspberry plants spread their roots in the soil, on a series of plants that grew at long intervals.
Result: Around 80% of the roots actually grew in the top 20 cm and often absorbed nutrients and water only a few millimeters below the surface of the earth. In this dense network of fine roots, the inquisitive raspberry professionals also found some thicker horizontal strands, as expected, studded with expansive eyes, which in spring produce the offspring rods for the renewal of the wood.
What they found - surprisingly - were one or two strong, up to thick thumbs roots, which grew vertically downwards (not to explain by special need for the location, Langförden was also because of high groundwater level to raspberry growing area). These roots could be followed up to 80 cm and deeper, used old root canals of previous plantations and earthworm tubes, they should obviously secure the water supply in case of prolonged drought. With the discovery of these roots, raspberry growers now also understood why their raspberries continued to grow happily when sugar beet and strawberry fields had to be "flopped" and irrigated due to drought...
The result confirms the growing number of home gardeners who are concerned with soil maintenance and colonization of soil-borne micro-organisms: it seems worthwhile to keep the garden soil loose and root-deep into the depths. In the light of this investigation, home gardeners, who already have such a floor, could certainly check whether their raspberries feed themselves in dry seasons, instead of picking up the sprinkler when the sun has been shining for three consecutive days.
Space requirements and neighborhood
Raspberries are soil tiredness that can be due to nematodes, harmful fungi, one-sided consumption of trace elements and other reasons. Without soil disinfection program (so soil fatigue is combated in the professional plant production, a highly difficult matter, if not the entire soil life should be killed) or soil replacement (down to a depth of about 1 m cubic meters), the soil is alive again, if he does not feed raspberries for a few years; So new raspberries should never be put on the site of old raspberries.
In the rest of the garden you need the following areas for the raspberries:
- Row planting: 40 to 60 cm distance between plants recommended
- Distance from row to row: 1.20 to 1.60 m
- 1.60 m when entering the row spaces for grooming and harvesting
- Already by the soil is compacted so far that roots get in danger of waterlogging
- For more than two rows logically always the case
- Therefore, double-row, accessible from the outsides cultivation is recommended
- The right planting distance is important so that all plant parts get enough light
- It also allows the plant a loose growth habit with good ventilation, the best prevention against fungal attack
- Alternative to row planting: Raspberries on the garden fence, which then serves as a support
- In gardens without proper "box-beds" raspberries can be placed individually between other plants
- In addition to the raspberries z. For example, ferns, lilies of the valley, tansy, marigolds, sharpening or forget-me-nots
- All these plants are known to promote the health of raspberry plants
- Among the crops, bush beans, low peas, garlic, lemon balm, onions are said to grow in a promoting symbiosis with raspberries
- For these (and themselves) the raspberry also ensures optimal pollination:
- The flowers are bee pasture and butterfly pasture at the same time, honey and wild bees and 54 butterfly species are attracted
- This could increase the raspberries all around the crop: as recently researched, the yield of crops increases with the number of species that pollinate these crops
Planting required?Raspberries ordered by mail order are almost always ready to be cut to size. Even in garden centers that sell to home gardeners, you usually do not have to worry about the planting; if then with exact instructions such as "cutting back raspberries after planting in the upper area by a third".
Raspberries from non-professional sources, however, usually get "as grown". So that these raspberries grow well, they must be prepared by a so-called planting cut on the rooting. It's about getting rid of the roots of too much soil above the earth, so they can concentrate on growing in. If the raspberries were allowed to grow freely "upside down", the shoots should be shortened by one to two thirds depending on the growth power after planting.
The root itself is also looked at carefully before planting, broken and otherwise damaged roots are cut back into the intact root part.
Plant raspberry properlyNow the raspberry can finally go into the earth, no longer a great necessity for proper preparation:
- Soak root bales for 15 minutes before planting
- Carefully loosen it up a bit, but do not reach too deep into the middle (but it is also recommended to "brutally" rip open the root ball)
- Dig plant hole, at least 20% wider and deeper than the root ball
- If the soil has not been prepared, check briefly whether the raspberry can rooted all around into loose soil
- If this is not the case, dig the planting hole a little bit larger at the compacted area and loosen the excavation
- If the soil has not yet been enriched with compost, put half-rotted compost down into the planting hole
- Plant, about the same as in the nursery
- Until where it was there in the soil, can be seen in the bark staining
- The eyes (buds) on the root ball should be covered by a 5 cm high earth layer
- Do not damage them when planting, they bring the "next but one fruit"
- Refill the soil and lightly press it all the way around
- In the process, pile the pouring edge on dry / sloping ground so that pouring water and rainwater collect around the roots
- Thoroughly sprinkle raspberries all around
- Mulch the soil under the raspberries at a width of at least 1 cm, approximately 1 cm wide
- Suitable material: Green cut, mixed with compost (with foliage of coniferous or deciduous trees), bark humus, straw