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Plants have very different demands on the soil, in order to flourish and to bring the highest possible yields. Most of the existing soil does not meet these requirements and must therefore be improved. The basic principle is: it depends on the right mixture!
To be able to improve your own soil, you first have to worry about what kind of soil is available. Thereafter, the nutrient additions and the other care measures are also directed.
There are different types of soil:
- 1. the sandy soil; it consists of individual grains of sand, can not form and does not stick to the fingers, sandy soils are usually sour and nutrient poor and can store water bad; Sandy floors are well ventilated, warm up quickly, but dry out quickly
- 2. the clay soil; it consists of grains of sand and in addition of floury parts, the so-called Schluffe; it is malleable with the hands, but also slightly cracked; The nutrient supplies are usually sufficient and water can be stored well
- 3. the clayey or heavy soil; he kneads well and rolls out; the soil is heavy and wet, can absorb a lot of water; there is a fast risk of waterlogging; the floor is poorly ventilated and warms up very slowly
If one has determined which soil one owns and wants to cultivate, then one can close also easily the supply gaps.
Especially important for the development of life in and on the ground is a humus layer. Because humus makes the soil habitable. Humus ensures a long-term supply of plants. The production of humus is mainly
taken from the soil organisms, which are the interface between living plants and organisms as well as dead organic matter. The soil organisms feed on existing, i. of dead plant parts, of existing humus, of living parts of plants and also of dead organisms. From these things they produce nutrients again. Nutrients are replenished naturally and are available quickly or less quickly depending on the level of biological activity. Humus is therefore not a soil type, but as humus called the organic substances in the soil.
The vital humus consists of the following minerals and nutrients:
- Sulfur; is partly responsible for the metabolism of the plant
- Potassium; makes plants resistant to pest infestation
- Phosphorus; is very important for the formation of flowers and fruits
- Calcium; is partly responsible for the metabolism and ensures an optimal effect of the other nutrients
- Iron; is important for the formation of the green dye
- Nitrogen; is very important for plant growth to prevent underdevelopment
- Magnesium; is important for the formation of the green dye
- Zinc; is responsible for the growth
- 1. contains minerals and nutrients
- 2. improves the air and heat balance of the soil
- 3. increases the ability of the soil to absorb water
- 4. has filter tasks against pollutants to protect the groundwater
- 5. Humus is the most important habitat for plants and soil organisms and thus forms the basis for horticulture and for agriculture and forestry.