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Solar panels convert solar radiation into usable heat, which can be used to heat water, provide heating or pool heating. While in southern countries single-circuit systems are common in which the drinking water is heated directly in the collector, the two-circuit systems with forced circulation are in use because of the risk of frost. In the first circuit, a heat transfer fluid (water-antifreeze mixture) is transported by a pump in the hot water tank. Via a heat exchanger, the heat of the sun is given off to the drinking or utility water, which represents the second cycle and supplies the taps. If the hot water storage tank can be positioned above the collector system, the density difference between the heat transfer fluid, which is different in flow and return, results in an own circulation of the liquid. In such a thermosyphon plants eliminated regulation and solar circuit circulation pump.
Solar system - the orientation is decisiveThe orientation of the mounting surface of the collector system does not necessarily have to be exactly south. Deviations up to 30 degrees to the south only lead to minor losses. In summer, the lower slope has the better energy yield in winter, the steeper in winter. Roof pitches between 20 degrees
and 60 degrees are suitable
For the exact dimensioning of the hot water consumption must be determined as accurately as possible. With an average consumption of 50 liters per person per day (at 45 degrees C), the recommended collector surface is 1.2 m2 to 1.5 m2 per person.
Solar panels -The size of the hot water tank, which serves as a buffer for days with less sunlight, should be about twice the daily hot water consumption. In order to stay with the above example so approx. 100 liters per person. A slim, cylindrical shape optimizes the utilization by the effect of the temperature stratification, the solar circuit exchanger is below, the Nutzkreis exchanger is mounted on top. Important is a very good insulation and avoiding cold spots through the pipes.
also for hot water
The path lengths from the collector to the memory must be as short as possible and the lines must also be very well insulated. The control is a simple temperature difference control. A temperature sensor measures the temperature at the heat accumulator at the height of the solar circuit heat exchanger, a second at the collector outlet. At a temperature difference between 5 degrees C to 8 degrees C, the seated in the return line heating pump with a power consumption of about 40 W to 80 W on and off at a temperature difference of 2 degrees C to 3 degrees C.
by Peter Morgenroth