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Apple tree, cherry tree and walnut must be pruned, so they do not get too big and they bear beautiful fruit. There are a few basic rules to keep in mind when editing:
Understanding the section of apple tree, cherry tree and walnut
Basically, the pruning has the purpose, starting from the center drive all around at regular intervals strong main drives arise. These leaders should branch off like floors at the same height - the result is called "juice balance". Among the other branches, a hierarchy should arise - thicker on the inside and thinner on the outside - which is easily recognizable. Overall, the tree should form a symmetrical triangular shape. With this shape in mind, you already know at the young tree which branches have to be removed:
- all inward growing shoots and all drives that stand too close to each other
- also dead, rotten and crippled branches
Yield on apple tree, cherry tree and walnut
However, fruit tree trimming is not just about having a beautiful crown shape, it's also about boosting yield, which can be increased by making the tree concentrate its power on the fruit. Too many green shoots without fruiting waste the growth power of the tree. The tree supplies its growing fruits over the leaves, z. For example, about 7-9 leaves are needed to feed an apple - but they only do that if they are constantly lit.
- superfluous green shoots shade the leaves of fruit-bearing branches.
- The new shoots that bear no flowers in the first year in most fruit trees and therefore can not produce fruit, become water carriers or water Schösser called.
Controversial - the cutting time
There are good arguments for the different cutting times, so there is no right cutting time. After all, a tree does not need a cut at all - this is always an unnatural intervention in which the tree loses nutrients and surface area for photosynthesis. So it is cut if this intervention damages the tree the least.
Traditionally, the winter cut is recommended. When the tree has lost its foliage, it has its juices pulled back into the trunk and root and lose by cutting the least nutrients. In addition, the gardener can see the structure of the tree well and he also has less plant material to dispose of.
However, there are more and more professionals who speak out for a summer cut. At first, this summer cut for cherry trees was promoted because they show very strong growth, which is slowed by the cut during the growing season, which at the same time promotes fertility in the next season. Because cherries bear on the two- to three-year-old wood, the fruit branches are hampered by too many green shoots in their development (see above water carrier). The summer cut throttles the training of these water carriers. Another key argument, however, is that cuts in the summer heal much faster and are less susceptible to bacterial and fungal attack.
That's why many experts today recommend a summer cut for apple trees and pear trees. Even with apple trees, it makes sense to remove the water heaters at a time that still benefits the upcoming harvest. The argument of a better view could also be reversed: in the summer one sees exactly the impulses of the old and the new year and which branches bear fruit and which not. Even diseases such as mildew could be better recognized and cut away. All this is much more important than to see the structure of the tree better (not to recognize that, because leaves are on the tree, you have to see pretty bad).
In general, clearing the tree in the summer will keep the tree in better health. Fungal diseases would have much less chance in the following wet season.The consequences of a summer cut are also that in the next spring much less water shots will form than after a winter cut.
For the walnut tree, basically all of the above is true - but again it is a special case in relation to the cutting time, because it reacts more than sensitive when cut at the wrong time. When the walnut tree is fully squeezed at the time of cutting, it literally bubbles out of the cut and may bleed if there are several cuts. Therefore, the cut should be made when the least amount of juice circulates in the tree, which is the case towards the end of the summer. The walnut can therefore be cut in August, even if it is still leafy. He then loses a lot of foliage, but not tons of sap. It also applies here that the wounds heal very well during the summer cut.
The low juice pressure is then maintained, in moderately cold weather, the walnut can be cut so even in winter. It should not be colder than 4° C. When winter cut the walnut tree now loses no valuable foliage. It should be noted, however, that the healing mechanisms for wounds are also not active. At this time, therefore, should not be a really radical cut, otherwise it could happen that the walnut does not manage in time to wound healing and then begins to bleed in the spring, even if the cut is a long time ago. For the same reason, the walnut should not be cut very late in the winter.