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The mulberry tree originates from tropical and subtropical areas. Both the black and the white mulberry tree were first cultivated in the Mediterranean area hundreds of years ago and have meanwhile become native to Central Europe as well.
In addition to the interesting leaves, which were originally used for the breeding of silkworms, it is mainly the mulberries that make this tree a regular guest in German gardens. Both black and white mulberries are edible and have many uses.
The white and black mulberry trees (Morus alba, morus nigra) are among the deciduous deciduous trees, which means they shed their leaves in autumn. The flowers are yellow and resemble pussy willow. In autumn, the trees, depending on the variety, white or dark red to black berries. These berries can be harvested in summer, in the months of July and August.
The right place for mulberries
Both the black and the white mulberry tree are among the robust garden plants. They can be planted outdoors as well as cultivated in a pot or bucket. The mulberry is hardy, so it can remain with the appropriate coverage in the winter in the garden. But also a wintering in the house is possible.
The ideal location for black and white mulberry trees in summer is partially shaded to sunny. Because the mulberry is very hardy, the plant can be exposed to wind, so it does not have to stand in a sheltered corner. The tree is very suitable for the sole planting, as the mulberry unfolds a very strong, broad treetop.
In winter, the mulberry can remain in the garden, it is hardy to about -15° C. Potted plants can overwinter in the apartment, a wintering in the basement is not necessary. The temperature for the location in the apartment should be about 5° C, a cooler wintering is possible.
The care of mulberry trees
The robust mulberry trees require little care. A regular cut is not necessary. However, one can cut the branches or wild shoots annually. This cut is made in March to prevent the tree from becoming too tall. An annual cut also controls the growth of the shoots. The robustness of the tree also ensures that a cut has no negative impact on the formation of fruits.
Anyone who cultivates the black and white mulberry tree as a potted plant or places the tree on the terrace as a container plant will have to repot regularly. The soil or soil in which the mulberry tree thrives best should be humus rich and very well drained. In the pot or bucket suitable for this is the addition of gravel, which allows a corresponding drainage.
In the summer mulberry trees kept in the tub must be regularly and very abundantly poured, since the water consumption of this plant is very high. Especially in the hot summer months, irrigation is necessary 1-2 times a week. Between March and around September, liquid fertilizer should be used weekly to provide adequate nutrients.
In winter, make sure that the earth does not dry out completely. In the open air as well as in the hibernation in the house of the mulberry tree throws its leaves in the autumn, the water requirement is severely limited. The casting should therefore be small but even for houseplants. However, it is important to observe the mulberry tree very well during the wintering in the house. If the first buds form in spring, the water consumption increases again very strongly. Then you have to react immediately with stronger casting. Fertilization is not necessary during the winter, this only starts with increasing nutrient requirements from March again.
Cutting and multiplyingThe mulberry tree belongs to the so-called wild shrubs. A distinction is made between the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry tree (Morus alba). There is also a native of North America red mulberry (Morus rubra). The distinguishing feature is the color of the "berry-like" fruits.
From a botanical point of view, they belong to the nut fruits. Another form or variant is the sycamore tree leaves (Morus alba 'Macrophylla'). The white mulberry tree has been cultivated for silkworm breeding for millennia. The first trees are already around 400 BC. From Asia Minor came to Greece. From there they were spread across Italy to Central and Northern Europe. In Germany they were planted for their reliable fruiting. Especially the black mulberries taste aromatic sweet. They can all be processed into dried fruit, juices, jelly, wine and compote and much more.
The deciduous tree is heat loving, can reach a height of up to 15 meters and is characterized by a bizarre, gnarled growth habit. Therefore, he likes to be planted in an exposed place, such as in public places or as a house tree. Because his heart-shaped foliage serves as a shade dispenser. The mulberry tree blooms about in May. Its blackberry-shaped fruits - a real delicacy - can be harvested from the beginning of August until the end of September.
As a planting site is a full sunny to half-shady place with a permeable, fertile - also calcareous - soil. The mulberry tree is quite easy to maintain. Even dryness, heat, barren floors and inner city climate he can handle very well. Mulberry trees that must thrive in pots as long as they are fully leafy, often and abundantly poured. The pot bottom may be well moistened. Mulberry trees planted in the garden should be vigorously poured once or twice a week in the summer heat. Due to a high nutrient requirement, the mulberry tree should also be fertilized well. The easiest way to administer long-term fertilizer in spring and early summer. Also possible is a supply in March and June with compost or organic long-term fertilizer.
Cutting mulberry tree
A cut of this wild shrub is not mandatory, but it can be done in March. Thus, the size of the crown and its branch can be controlled. Such correction cuts are made especially in the youth phase of the tree. As far as the fruit wood is concerned, you can not go wrong, because mulberries start to produce fruit on both the young and the old wood. By nature, the mulberry tree develops into a tree-like shrub. Therefore, a drive for rooting should be chosen. This is then supported by targeted cutting. If you want to keep your mulberry tree small, you should shorten the first fresh shoots by several centimeters in March or April.
Mulberry tree propagation
The mulberry tree can be multiplied by cuttings in winter. The mulberry cuttings are cut from large, healthy branches of the tree. In bonsai cultivation, the mulberry tree is also propagated via seeds and mosses. You can buy a mulberry tree in well-stocked nurseries.