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Timber frame construction - sustainable wall constructionWood frame construction involves laying a framework of wooden beams with board materials. The materials are wood or fiberboard or gypsum plasterboard or plasterboard.
Through these plates, the space-enclosing elements, the wooden frame is stiffened in itself. In the interstices of the plates thermal insulation is introduced, the supporting structure and the insulation are thus in a plane. This allows a very good thermal insulation with only a small wall thickness.
Sustainable wall construction through prefabrication
Since the individual walls are often pre-fabricated right up to thermal insulation, wall construction takes place in a dry atmosphere without time pressure. So good results are achieved, the suppliers of prefabricated houses can put a lot of care in the calculation of the correct wall structure. With wooden frame construction, a passive house standard with comparatively low wall thicknesses can be achieved in this way. Afterwards two examples will illustrate the wall construction:
First, a conventional conceivable wall construction, but does not reach the passive house values: As inner planking is an OSB plate or gypsum fiber board. This is followed by an installation level for laying the heating pipes and the electrical lines. This installation level is doubled (reinforced) by transversely located woods of 6 to 8 centimeters deep (the stems) and an OSB board as an airtight layer. Inside now sits the 140 to 240 millimeters deep stand and the thermal insulation, here a Klemmfilz. This is followed by vapor-permeable DWD panels, which form a windproof layer. Now
Follow counter battens and battens which make the bottom-top formwork raw
or untreated larch wood. This sample wall has a thickness of about 350 millimeters and a U-value of about 0.18.
Passive House Standard
The wall construction according to passive house standard is only slightly thicker (370 millimeters), but reaches a U-value of about 0.11: After 12.5 millimeters of building biology plasterboard on the inside to follow 60 millimeters of battens, in the 10 millimeter air layer and 50 Millimeters of mineral wool are located. Now comes a vapor barrier of 0.2 millimeters, followed by 160 millimeters of timber frame construction filled with 160 millimeters of mineral wool. This wall construction concludes with a building biology gypsum fiber board of 12.5 millimeters, to which a full heat protection of 130 millimeters and a plaster system are applied. Here three mutually offset insulation layers were used to avoid thermal bridges through the load-bearing wooden framework.
Incidentally, a passive house is understood to be a building that does not require conventional heating in winter due to its good thermal insulation and no extra cooling in summer. The primary energy requirement is less than 120 kWh per square meter per year. In comparison to a conventional house, a passive house needs more than 90 percent less heating energy. Converted into heating oil, a passive house with less than 1.5 liters per square meter per year, that is under 150 liters of heating oil for a 100-square-meter house a year.
Such a building can be built of wood today! Using this example, you can easily gauge the tremendous advances that timber construction has made in comparison to previous decades.