Wren - Wanted poster, breeding season and information about the food


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wren

As one of only a few species of birds, the wren feels as comfortable on the ground as it does in the air, tricking its enemies most of the time. In nature, he delights with an incomparable song. He is one of the third smallest bird species in Europe. While not endangered, it can also look back on a large number of broods every year, yet many die because their habitat is getting smaller and the winter increasingly severe. In the home garden information portal you will find everything worth knowing about the songbirds.

Characteristics

  • Bird species: Wren
  • Scientific name: Troglodytes troglodytes
  • Common names: Snow King, Wren (English), Chochin (Spanish)
  • Genus: Troglodytes
  • Occurrences: Europe, North Africa, Asia and North America
  • Weight: up to about ten grams
  • Size: on average nine centimeters
  • Plumage: brown with wavy lines on tail, wings and flanks
  • Breeding season: April to July
  • Food: mainly animal nutrition

recognition

The small wren has a brown plumage, which shows on the top in a red-brown tone and at the bottom in pale brown. At the wings, the flanks and the tail, darker wavy lines pass through the plumage. The beak is pointed and in the upper part black-brown as well as slightly bent. The lower beak part has a yellow color.
The tail is relatively long and bent upwards. Because of this, its small size as well as the hopping over the ground, it is often confused between bushes and hedges with a mouse.

habitat

The Troglodytes troglodytes is indeed with an estimated number of over two million breeding pairs including all subspecies, not infrequently, but still found only in certain places. The city usually offers him in densely populated areas too little suitable vegetation, through which he can move and in which he can find a safe place to sleep. Therefore, its occurrence in the city is usually observed only in larger parks and gardens.

wren


Since he does not like to fly high, visits to balconies on higher floors are more of a rarity. The more rural it gets, the more often the wren is an integral part of nature. Especially around forests, he likes to settle in and especially likes quiet gardens, where he likes especially wild gardens. These usually offer him a dense ground vegetation in which he feels most comfortable.
TIP: In order to create more living space for this bird, it is enough to leave a small corner in the garden to the wild growth. Also the bushes of shrubs, a bunch of sticks or nesting aids are gladly accepted by the snow kings and lure them near you.

food

The Snow King is one of the insect eaters and prefers:
  • ants
  • be crazy
  • Flies and mosquitoes
  • mites
  • woodlice
  • millipedes
  • Moth
  • dragonflies
  • Insect eggs and larvae
If there is no animal food fast, he will take little seeds. Sometimes he also eats elderberry, bromine and raspberries or grapes. Through its long, pointed beak, it usually passes through any close-meshed bird protection net.

foraging

While male wrens look for their food even in high tree tops, the female wren is limited to the supply on the ground. Both sexes do not miss the waters and attack insects from the water surface or swimming below, for which they take a short dive with their heads. Especially in winter it attracts to the waters edge, where, among other things, numerous insect larvae settle briefly under the water surface for wintering.

wren


Between spring and autumn, they primarily search for food in brushwood and root systems. Here they are able to pull food out of the narrowest cracks and joints. In the branches of bushes, hedges and shrubs, they are less to discover when picking up their prey. Indigestible chitin parts, which have millipedes, for example, retch the wrens as so-called sponges.

activity

The third smallest bird in Europe is active only during the day until dawn. As soon as the sun rises, they emerge from their sleeping places. These are mainly on densely vegetated soil, where they have settled between the vegetation in the branches of shrubs and bushes for the night's sleep. Only the female stays in her nest during the breeding season. As night falls, they look for their resting place and stay there until the next sunrise.

flight behavior

During the day, they usually only cover short distances and usually cross low-lying waters. Mostly they prefer locomotion on the ground, where they are protected by scrub from their enemies.

singing

The European wren has up to seven different "songs", all of which are similar in duration and complexity. Each complete stanza lasts approximately five seconds, sometimes seven seconds, and their sounds amount to around 130 different tones. The male occurs in comparison to the female by loud crashing tones that trillern and roll them. Here they create a source volume between 40 decibels and 90 decibels. Sometimes they can be heard within a radius of 500 meters. The singing is stopped abruptly.
The song of the females is less loud, but more varied, because they do not use simple songs. Especially vociferous and enduring are wrens during the breeding season. The male often starts at four o'clock in the morning. The song increases immensely until late morning. In the afternoon they sing less and less. Before they go to sleep, they conclude the day again with vigorous singing.

natural enemies

Although Snow Kings are so lovely and enrich nature with their singing, they have enemies to fear. With a small size and enormous mobility on the ground, they often escape the danger of escaping through fences or sheltering in small caves, but sometimes they are not fast enough.
The natural enemies include above all:
  • Birds of prey such as sparrowhawk, eagle and falcon
  • foxes
  • marten
  • squirrel
  • parasites

brood

wren

A complex theme describes the breeding season of troglodytes troglodytes.
Basic information about the propagation:
  • Sexual maturity: From the second year of life
  • Mating season: April to June
  • Breeding season: 14 to 18 days
  • Number of breeding: twice a year
  • Brood months: between April and July
  • Eggs: five to seven
  • pairing
The male wren begins to significantly increase his singing during the breeding season. He gets louder, sings already in the early morning hours and the number increases significantly, as well as targeted lure calls are added. With these he attracts attention and attracts the females. During the mating, the male wren does not basically bind to a female, but on occasion also mates with other sexually mature conspecifics. If this is the case, the females remain alone with their brood and usually raise them alone.

nest

In early spring, the Wren begins with the nest building for the upcoming brood. Here they do not confine themselves to a nest, but several are built in different places. Among other things, this is based on the fact that the snow kings want to secure themselves thereby. Should a nest be damaged shortly before the brood or a potential danger in the vicinity be recognized, there is hardly time to build a new nest. If he has prepared several, he always has an alternative breeding ground. The female alone decides which nest it should be. If it is found, it comes to sexual intercourse in the nest.
The nest is built according to the environment, in different places. This may be the tree root work or a pallet stack in a warehouse. Wall cracks, stone or wood piles are also often chosen places for nest building. The birds use blades of grass, small twigs and dry leaves for their production. From this they form an oval-shaped nest and put it out with moss and feathers. If the female has made the nest selection, she lays her eggs, which have red-brow points.

Nesthocker

The boys of the Snow Kings are among the nest stools. They hatch naked without plumage and are born with their eyes and ears closed, which is why they are initially blind and deaf. The mother must warm her and protect her from rain and wind, otherwise she would not be able to survive.
development
  • After about four days, eyes and ear canals open slowly
  • The first feathers start to grow
  • From the eighth day "begging calls" for food
  • From the tenth day, the maternity protection is eliminated from the weather
  • After ten to 17 days they leave the nest
  • They are now almost fully airworthy
  • Their food they seek themselves from leaving the nest itself

wintering

Snow kings in Europe moved south than migratory birds in the autumn. Today this is different. Only in northern Europe does this species abandon in warmer climes. From there they leave between September and the beginning of November. They return between March and May. Some of them no longer move to the north, but also settle in Germany, among other places.

wren


In Central Europe, they have become more and more of the so-called "resident birds" in recent decades. That means they spend their winter here. However, they are still looking for warmer places. For example, they move from mountainous terrain into the valley.

winter quarters

Due to the winter mobility of the wren usually has no fixed winter quarters. However, he mostly chooses a sheltered resting place near water bodies, as finding food in these regions is easier in winter.Nevertheless, it can happen that he often returns to a winter place.
Suitable winter places are for example
  • small tree cave, as they make woodpeckers
  • Herbaceous vegetation in forests
  • stables
  • barn
  • Greenhouse back.
  • Bat or nesting boxes
A special feature is that the Troglodytes troglodytes likes to stay near the human being in winter.
TIP: If you want to set up a box, you should lay it out with a cabbage plant. Ivy is perfect for example. It also warms.

body functions

Unlike many other species, birds like the wren do not fall into hibernation or winter starvation. On the contrary, they remain alert and active during the cold winter months, albeit much less so than in the summer.

wren


The Troglodytes troglodytes consumes noticeably more energy in winter when temperatures drop. The colder it gets, the more energy the body uses to maintain all bodily functions. However, since the food supply is lower in the cold winter, this bird only to down their activity, take long rest breaks and keep the body warm.

body heat

To keep warm, the wrens have the ability, like almost every other "hardy" bird, to flatten their plumage. This creates a kind of air cushion between the springs, which act in about, as in a down jacket. In addition, there are usually always some snow kings to rest together. They lie close together and thereby warm each other.
Conclusion
The Wren is one of the most enduring songbirds and lives in both the air and the ground. He likes to eat mosquitoes, flies and other insects, which are often annoying on the balcony or the terrace in summer. For offspring the females take care of one brood twice a year. However, natural enemies and severe winters can make life difficult for birds. The continuously decreasing living space contributes to this. With little effort, you can support the wrens in their living conditions and be rewarded with birdsong.

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